How and when is it best to prune trees

How and when is it best to prune trees

A tree may need proper pruning in the fall for a variety of reasons:

  • Removal of diseased or wind-damaged branches;
  • Reduction of the crown, for the renewal of branches and better air circulation;
  • Decrease in height;
  • Removal of interfering lower branches;
  • Formation for design solutions;
  • Increased yield.

Once the decision to trim has been made, consider whether you should do the work yourself. If you have a large tree in your area where you want to remove large branches at the top of the crown, it is best to hire a specialist. In particular, lifters and heavy chain saws may be required for trimming. This is a job that should be left to trained and experienced professionals.

When is the best time to prune trees: in spring or autumn?

Pruning time in the garden always depends on the type and method used. Thus, it is produced at different times of the year, in any season, but preference is given to the spring period, before the buds are swollen. Dead branches can and should be removed throughout the entire annual cycle.

Never compromise your personal safety when pruning.

Spring

Pruning to enhance growth is recommended in spring. This is because nutrients are distributed from the roots and perennial parts to the younger parts of growth and fruiting. It is best to choose a period immediately before the start of sap flow.that will have a beneficial effect on pruning. Shrubs that bloom in spring should not be pruned.

Autumn winter

Pruning in the autumn and winter seasons is often carried out in areas where it is predominantly warm and there is no severe frost. Otherwise, there is a risk of damage to the bark and wood in the place where the cut was made by extreme cold or sunburn.

When planning pruning, it is important to remember that the temperature should not drop below -8 degrees. Pruning during this period minimizes sap loss and subsequent stress on the tree. It will also minimize the risk of fungal or insect infestation, as the fungus and insects are likely to be dormant. Finally, in the case of deciduous trees, pruning after the fall will give you a better idea of ​​how the trunk will change. Pruning fruit trees is not recommended in the fall.

Summer

Gardeners rarely prefer summer pruning, since when the buds are swollen and the tree is blooming, ringlets can be damaged, and in the summer the branches will have to be removed with the harvest. However, it makes sense during this period to engage in pinching shoots that do not require strong growth., as well as the removal of tops that appeared after a large cut.

Pruning tools

The tool recommendations are pretty straightforward. To properly prune trees and shrubs, buy the best tools you can afford and keep them in good condition.

Here are the basic tools:

  • Pruner. The use of ratchet instruments is not recommended. It is best to choose a regular and comfortable pruner.
  • Garden hacksaw. This is a specialized hacksaw that tapers towards the end of its blade. The teeth are designed to prevent the hacksaw from clogging up with sawdust. It is not recommended to use a construction hacksaw. For comfortable work, purchase a tool by profile.
  • Air secateurs. This pruner is used for hard-to-reach areas of the tree. It is a bar on which a secateurs are attached, which is activated by means of a lever and a rope.

It is necessary to monitor the condition of the instrument. Sharp blades must be used to avoid damaging the trunk or bark. Otherwise, there is a risk of the appearance of surfaces susceptible to contamination with harmful microorganisms. Tree diseases are easily spread by contaminated tools.

Therefore, after each trimming procedure, do not forget to disinfect your tools in a 1/9 chlorine / water solution, followed by cleaning with soapy water and then drying.

How to properly prune trees and shrubs in the garden?

common goal - cut off the unwanted branch, while keeping the trunk intact. The most common mistake is cutting a branch too close or too far from the trunk. Or, by disrupting the sequence, they damage the bark, especially when pruning large branches.

Depending on the purpose of the work being carried out, you can determine which technology to use.

Kidney cut

Using this pruning method, you can, for example, change the direction of growth of branches depending on your needs. You need to choose a bud located on a one-year-old shoot that grows in the right direction. This cut is made at an angle of 45 degrees to the branch.

The pruning shear blade should be directed towards the part of the tree that remains. Pruning is done by forming a small angle so that the bud remains intact, but at the same time not forming a stump. The kidney will dry out if it does not receive the necessary substances. This happens when a very sharp cut is made that hits the kidney. It must be remembered here that our goal is for the bud to form a shoot.

At the same time, if a stump is left, then it may dry out, and the bud will not give a new shoot. Such a stump can only be left when pruning a shrub.

Ring cut

When using this method, the entire branch is pruned. Depending on the thickness, pruning shears can be used. To avoid a protruding stump and at the same time a "cut" does not occur, a cut should be made along the outer surface of the ring. The rings are located at the junctions of the branches.

Side branch cut

If you want to leave a side branch and continue growing in its direction, you must cut off the unnecessary branch. It turns out that the slice in relation to the left branch will become its continuation.

How much to trim?

Do not cut more than 25% of the tree branches. When deciding how much to trim, you need to focus on the bare minimum.

Each pruning puts a lot of stress on the tree and increases its vulnerability to disease and insects.

Make sure the live branches are at least 2/3 of the tree's height. Removing more than necessary will increase the risk of damage to the tree. Sometimes pruning is forced. For example, wind damage, height reduction due to power lines, municipal crown raising requirements, etc. Even so, trim as little as possible.

Care after pruning

Garden varnish, paints based on vegetable drying oil, petrolatum, etc. are suitable for covering the sections. Branches located on the periphery of the crown, the diameter of which is less than 2 cm, are not lubricated.

Try to further monitor the condition of the tree and heal the resulting wounds, if necessary. If you notice any peculiarities in how the tree reacts to pruning, try to apply the experience gained in further maintenance.


That is, the growth strength of the continuation shoot depends on which bud remains under the pruning site.

In this way, growth is regulated:

  • when circumcised for a weak kidney: the continuation shoot grows poorly
  • when pruning to a strong one or without pruning at all: intensive regrowth of the shoot.

In the one-year shoot, the apical bud has a great vigor of growth. Also, strong buds are located in the middle of the shoot, and between them and the apical ones are weakened. The distribution of buds by strength depends, among other things, on the grade. In some varieties, the buds located at the base have low growth vigor.

Therefore, to enhance the growth, it is necessary to leave the apical bud or cut off the shoot in the middle, to weaken it, remove the terminal bud or cut the shoot above the bud at the base. The pruning time also affects the growth rate. If it is produced in February, the growth becomes intense, if in March, it slows down.

Removal of some shoots leads to a more rational redistribution of juices and, as a consequence, an increase in fertility. Thanks to pruning, the productive branches receive more light, and the shaded low-performance branches, which only take away the vitality of the plant for nothing, are removed. It also promotes faster growth and higher yields.


Let's analyze the features of tree pruning by seasons.

Pruning trees in the fall or winter

It is believed that the dormant period is the best time for pruning. For the southern regions, it is recommended to prune winter-hardy varieties in the autumn or winter.

For Central Russia, the Urals and Siberia, the optimal pruning time will be the end of winter and before flowering.

However, in large, industrial gardens for such a short period, they do not always have time to prune the entire garden, so pruning is allowed throughout the winter (during thaw periods, or if the air temperature is not lower than -8 ... -10 ° C).

This is due to the fact that at lower temperatures the wood becomes brittle, the cuts are not smooth, and the wounds do not heal well. At the same time, in order to avoid the negative effects of severe frosts on the tree, the cut points are made longer, leaving protective hemp 6-15 cm long, which are removed after 1-2 years.

However, young trees in all climatic zones should not be cut until early spring.

Pruning is not recommended in cold or damp weather, stone fruit trees, as this provokes an increase in gum flow.

Pruning trees in summer

Pruning trees in the summer (in the first half of the growing season) is rarely used, since the leaf surface decreases and complex substances (assimilation products) accumulate in the tree, thereby weakening the growth and development of the tree.

However, in some cases, summer pruning can be useful. For example, the process of sanitary pruning is facilitated, since dried, frozen branches are clearly visible in the summer.

In addition, pruning in early summer is necessary if it is necessary to weaken the recovery process of the tree, after the process of lowering the crown height.

It is allowed to carry out rejuvenating pruning of stone fruit trees (cherry, sweet cherry, apricot) at the beginning of summer, since at this time they can more accurately identify the degree of load of the current harvest on the tree and create favorable conditions for the development of overgrown branches.

The importance of pruning in early summer (before June 15) for apricot crops is not unimportant, since differentiation slows down and generative buds bloom on the resulting new growth, which has a positive effect on the winter hardiness and development of the tree in the next year.

For orchards cultivated seed-bearing tree species, summer thinning will be effective only in a lean year.


Pruning fruit trees in spring: how and when is it best to do it?

You have asked a very serious question that requires a difficult answer.
I'll start with the simplest: when to prune trees?
It is optimal to do pruning before the start of sap flow. It is impossible to give an exact date. It is advisable to start pruning when a strong decrease in temperatures is no longer expected.
When pruning trees, first of all, we remove damaged branches. Then the shoots, the growth of which is directed towards the inside of the crown. These shoots create shading inside the crown, and this contributes to the development of diseases, poor ripening of fruits.

When trimming the shoot, do not leave stumps. You need to cut at the very base of the shoot, but also without damaging the branch on which it grew. If the shoot or branch was rather thick, cover the cut site with garden pitch.

Pruning varies from tree to tree. In addition, you must not allow the tree to waste energy on the growth of unwanted shoots in the summer. To do this, in the summer they break out these unnecessary shoots while still green. Do not feel sorry for them, the tree will be much more painful if you then saw the branch formed from this green shoot.

You can read about summer pruning here
It is possible to describe everything in words, but it is long, and it can be difficult to understand. I have a small selection of videos, which I will gladly share with you.
How to properly prune an apple tree
Pruning fruit trees
Pruning pear
Cherry pruning
Pruning plum
Pruning old trees
Site about the rules of pruning

Do not forget that you can give the desired direction to the shoot by tying it to a peg driven into the ground. During the season, the escape, as a rule, remembers the given position, and it can be released.
Bending the shoots to a direction close to horizontal leads to the formation of more fruit formations on it.

Good time of the day, Villa! An excellent answer to your questions about pruning fruit was given by Lukor. There is nothing to add, except to remind about the optimal timing and general rules for the technique of performing slices when pruning.
It's not too late to host the main crown correction apple trees, pears and plums, which is preferably carried out in late winter or early spring. Whereas sanitary pruning: removal of dry and diseased branches, root growth and tops can be done in summer. For cherries, it is recommended to start the main pruning after harvest.
It is completely excluded to carry out pruning in winter (due to the possible negative impact on the cuts of low temperatures and strong desiccation) and during the period of sap flow (due to the strong release of sap from the surface of the cuts, which weakens the tree and can lead to its death).
Cut off shoots must be carefully collected and burned, because they can be sources of pests and diseases.

General rules of technique for making slices when trimming
1. The cut should be oblique, starting at the level of the middle of the kidney on the opposite side and ending above the apical kidney.
2. The cut must be done over a well-developed, healthy vegetative bud.
3. Annual shoots are usually shortened "by the kidney" without leaving stumps.
4. Pruning of 2 - 4-year-old or semi-skeletal branches is carried out to the nearest branch or the place of possible appearance of new young shoots.
5. Skeletal branches are removed in parts: a) make a cut from the bottom at a distance of 30 cm from the trunk, b) make a second cut 2 - 5 cm higher than the first, c) cut the remaining stump into a ring, clean the cut surface.
6. Sections should be covered with garden putty, varnish or oil paint 20 minutes after cutting, but no later than 24 hours.

You have asked a very serious question that requires a difficult answer.
I'll start with the simplest: when to prune trees?
It is optimal to do pruning before the start of sap flow. It is impossible to give an exact date. It is advisable to start pruning when a strong decrease in temperatures is no longer expected.
When pruning trees, first of all, we remove damaged branches. Then the shoots, the growth of which is directed towards the inside of the crown. These shoots create shading inside the crown, and this contributes to the development of diseases, poor ripening of fruits.

When trimming the shoot, do not leave stumps. You need to cut at the very base of the shoot, but also without damaging the branch on which it grew. If the shoot or branch was rather thick, cover the cut site with garden pitch.

Pruning varies from tree to tree. In addition, you must not allow the tree to waste energy on the growth of unwanted shoots in the summer. To do this, in the summer they break out these unnecessary shoots while still green. Do not feel sorry for them, the tree will be much more painful if you then saw the branch formed from this green shoot.

You can read about summer pruning here
It is possible to describe everything in words, but it is long, and it can be difficult to understand. I have a small selection of videos, which I will gladly share with you.
How to properly prune an apple tree
Pruning fruit trees
Pruning pear
Cherry pruning
Pruning plum
Pruning old trees
Site about the rules of pruning

Do not forget that you can give the desired direction to the shoot by tying it to a peg driven into the ground. During the season, the escape, as a rule, remembers the given position, and it can be released.
Bending the shoots to a direction close to horizontal leads to the formation of more fruit formations on it.


Tools and materials

The plum is cut using the inventory. To remove thin shoots (up to 2 cm), use double-edged secateurs. Greens and unripe shoots can be removed with garden shears. For lashes with a diameter of 3 to 5 cm, a special lopper with a long handle is suitable. A gasoline or hand saw can handle the tree trunk.

How to cut a plum: is it necessary, types ... How to cut a plum: is it necessary, types ... How to cut a plum: is it necessary, types ... How to cut a plum: is it necessary, types ... Plum pruning, how to prune correctly ...

Lightweight aluminum stepladder is convenient when working with tall specimens. Chalk or paint is used for marking. After pruning the plum, the wood residues are collected on a trolley and transported for disposal. To prevent infection or gum secretion, all wounds are treated with garden varnish. Parts affected by fungi or parasites are sprayed with pesticides.


Existing species

To rejuvenate trees and shrubs, different types of pruning are used, there are about five of them, and a combination is also possible.

The first type is formative. Initially, it is required to give the desired shape and size to the crown. But you need to know how to properly prune fruit trees. All unnecessary branches are cut off at the very trunk, large ones - by a third, thin - twice.

The second type is regulatory. Aimed at maintaining a balance between crown growth and fruiting. All vertical, skeletal branches and branches inside the tree are cut off. Such actions will allow you to give the crown the shape of a pyramid.

The third type is anti-aging. This pruning is done to maximize the growth of all branches (old and young).

The fourth type is restorative. If the tree or its branches have been exposed to frost or mechanical damage, then partial pruning is carried out.

The fifth type is sanitary. This is pruning damaged, painful, dry, or broken branches. In practice, gardeners often combine all types of rejuvenation.


Choice of cropping tools

To delete branches, you need to use special tools. The main garden tools include (Figure 7):

  • Secateurs - it is better to choose a regular model, rather than a ratchet tool, since it will have to be pressed several times to cut. Using a simple pruner is much easier and more convenient.
  • Hacksaw with spaces between the teeth. This design will prevent the accumulation of sawdust and keep your inventory clean. For work in the garden, choose only a special hacksaw, which is not recommended for use for other work, so that the blade does not become dull.
  • Air sector - a tool with a telescopic handle to which the blades are attached. To make a cut, it is enough to use a special lever. Such a tool will be very useful for cutting off the upper branches.
Figure 7. Basic Garden Pruning Tools

In addition to inventory, you need to buy a garden var - a special ointment that is used to cover the wounds on the branches for faster healing.


Watch the video: Ask an Arborist: The ABCs of Pruning