7 most frost-resistant grape varieties

7 most frost-resistant grape varieties

Many residents of Russia grow or want to grow grapes on their personal plot. But the climate of most of our country is not very suitable for this culture. By the efforts of breeders all over the world, now there are quite a few varieties that can withstand such difficult conditions. In this article, we will talk specifically about frost-resistant varieties.

Benefits of frost-resistant grape varieties

The first and main advantage of frost-resistant varieties is clear from the name - these representatives tolerate our harsh winters relatively easily without shelter. Also, the berries are denser and, accordingly, transportable. Winter-hardy varieties are well suited for making wines. What varieties can withstand adverse conditions?

The most frost-resistant for arbors and arches

Lydia

The most beloved and widespread is Lydia. Bred by Williams Prince, a breeder from the USA from the Isabella variety, and received the name Isabella Pink there. It tolerates frost very well. The bunches are small. The berries are predominantly pink. They have an unusual, very pleasant taste. Suitable for arbors and arches.

Great for wine. But the recipe must be strictly observed. Otherwise, Lydia has the peculiarity of emitting harmful substances if the technology is not followed.

Benefits:

  • excellent frost resistance;
  • self-pollination;
  • resistant to powdery mildew and mildew;
  • transportability.

The only significant drawback is the instability to phylloxera.

Aleshenkin

Aleshenkin is an early dessert grape, uncovered. He is also called Alyosha or # 328. It tastes great and looks beautiful - large clusters up to two kilograms, berries are cone-shaped, yellow-green in color.

Benefits:

  • very early;
  • does not require special care and special agricultural technology;
  • cuttings root well;
  • good yield without feeding;
  • few seeds in berries;
  • great taste;
  • berries stay on the vine at frosts down to -25 ° C.

Disadvantages:

  • the underground part is not resistant to frost;
  • berries need a growth stimulant, otherwise peas are likely.

Lady fingers

It has a unique berry shape that looks like women's fingers. Hence the name. The official name is Khusayne Bely. Large sweet berries are arranged in large bunches. The taste is excellent, sweet, with hints of sourness. They are most often used for making raisins, as they are seedless.

It is a grape variety native to Central Asia. Very picky about the sun and heat. It has a long ripening period, therefore it is not very suitable for central Russia. It is grown by few winegrowers. With good care and favorable weather, as well as occasional feeding, you can still get a good harvest.

Benefits:

  • high productivity;
  • strong growth;
  • excellent taste;
  • lack of bones.

Disadvantages:

  • long ripening period - 130-160 days;
  • crop instability over seasons;
  • long survival time of cuttings;
  • low frost resistance - up to -11 ° С;
  • this grape is very fond of wasps and birds;
  • extremely susceptible to various diseases - fungus, oidium, powdery mildew.

If all these shortcomings are not scared off from landing, then you should carefully approach the choice of location. It must be protected from drafts, there was a lot of sun. The soil should be light. Groundwater should be deep - more than 2.5 meters. Also for ladies' fingers you need a lot of free space - at least 2-2.5 meters in each direction. If the year turned out to be rainy, then spoiled berries must be removed in time. Otherwise, they will suffer healthy fetuses.

Tukay

The table grape Tukay was created at the Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking by Ya.I. Potapenko in Novocherkassk. The variety turned out to be unpretentious and frost-resistant. Tukay is loved for its rich harvest and long shelf life of berries, which are very tasty.

Benefits:

  • early, in July already begins to ripen;
  • large bunches - up to 1.5 kilograms;
  • fragrant and tasty berries;
  • has female and male flowers, therefore self-pollinated;
  • fruits can be stored until spring, if the temperature regime is observed (from +1 to + 8 ° C).

Disadvantages:

  • needs proper pruning, otherwise the clusters will be small;
  • can be affected by a felt mite.

When pruning in the spring, 30-40 eyes are left, and the rest of the shoots are broken off by hand. It is difficult to get rid of a felt mite.

The leaves affected by the parasite must be destroyed, and the plant itself must be treated with colloidal sulfur.

Cardinal

The variety was obtained by crossing grapes by the Queen of Vineyards and Alphonse Lavalle. The brushes are large: length 18-30 cm, width 12-20 cm. Weight - 350-500 g. The berries are large. Their weight reaches nine grams. The color of the peel is violet-red, with a waxy bloom.

Cardinal belongs to the early varieties. Ripening time - 105-110 days. Self-pollinated.

The best breeding method for this variety is grafting on the stock.

Benefits:

  • excellent taste and attractive appearance;
  • large berries;
  • suitable for long-term storage;
  • good transportability.

Disadvantages:

  • low resistance to diseases and pests;
  • shedding of flowers and peas at high humidity;
  • the need for careful care;
  • poor frost resistance.

Isabel

This variety was bred in the USA by Isabell Gibbs. Isabella, like some other American "gifts" (Colorado potato beetle, ash-leaved maple), turned out to be very tenacious. He does not care about the Epiphany frosts of central Russia. Also, it is practically not affected by any diseases characteristic of grapes.

At one time there was information that Isabella was harmful, since a lot of methyl alcohol is released during the preparation of wine, but later this information was denied.

Benefits:

  • taste qualities;
  • low calorie content;
  • high productivity;
  • unpretentiousness.

Disadvantage for some winegrowers, the late harvest period can be called October-November.

Rylines Pink Seedlis

Of all the varieties described in this article, Rylines Pink Seedlis differs in that it lacks seeds. The berries are in the shape of a ball, small, pink with strawberry aroma. The bunches are compact. Harvesting is in mid-September.

Benefits:

  • lack of bones;
  • high frost resistance;
  • rapid growth of vines;
  • very early maturation;
  • resistance to fungal diseases;
  • increased content of useful microelements (vitamin A, B vitamins, iron and iodine).

Disadvantages:

  • in rainy weather in the ripening phase, the berries are prone to cracking;
  • small fruits.

Literally 200 years ago, grapes in Russia were grown only in the southern regions and a little in the center of the country. Now it is grown in the Urals, and in the middle lane it is widespread everywhere. But breeders do not stop at their research. And, rest assured, many wonderful frost-resistant varieties adapted for our country will soon see the light.


Some frost-resistant vineyards can withstand temperatures down to -27-29 ° С

The first and main advantage of frost-resistant varieties is clear from the name - these representatives tolerate our harsh winters relatively easily without shelter. Also, the berries are denser and, accordingly, transportable. Winter-hardy varieties are well suited for making wines. What varieties can withstand adverse conditions?


The most beloved and widespread is Lydia. Bred by Williams Prince, a breeder from the USA from the Isabella variety, and received the name Isabella Pink there. It tolerates frost very well. The bunches are small. The berries are predominantly pink. They have an unusual, very pleasant taste. Suitable for arbors and arches.

Grape variety Lydia

Benefits:

  • excellent frost resistance
  • self-pollination
  • resistant to powdery mildew and mildew
  • transportability.

The only significant drawback is the instability to phylloxera.

Aleshenkin

Aleshenkin is an early dessert grape, uncovered. He is also called Alyosha or # 328. It tastes great and looks beautiful - large clusters up to two kilograms, berries are cone-shaped, yellow-green in color.

Grape variety Aleshenkin

Benefits:

  • very early
  • does not require special care and special agricultural technology
  • cuttings root well
  • good yield without feeding
  • few seeds in berries
  • great taste
  • berries stay on the vine at frosts down to -25 ° C.

  • the underground part is not resistant to frost
  • berries need a growth stimulant, otherwise peas are likely.

Lady fingers

It has a unique berry shape that looks like women's fingers. Hence the name. The official name is Khusayne Bely. Large sweet berries are arranged in large bunches. The taste is excellent, sweet, with hints of sourness. They are most often used for making raisins, as they are seedless.

Grapes ladies fingers

It is a grape variety native to Central Asia. Very picky about the sun and heat. It has a long ripening period, therefore it is not very suitable for central Russia. It is grown by few winegrowers. With good care and favorable weather, as well as occasional feeding, you can still get a good harvest.

Benefits:

  • high yield
  • strong growth
  • excellent taste
  • lack of bones.

  • long ripening period - 130-160 days
  • crop instability by seasons
  • long survival time of cuttings
  • low frost resistance - up to -11 ° С
  • this grape is very fond of wasps and birds
  • extremely susceptible to various diseases - fungus, oidium, powdery mildew.

If all these shortcomings are not scared off from landing, then you should carefully approach the choice of location. It must be protected from drafts, there was a lot of sun. The soil should be light. Groundwater should be deep - more than 2.5 meters. Also for ladies' fingers you need a lot of free space - at least 2-2.5 meters in each direction. If the year turned out to be rainy, then spoiled berries must be removed in time. Otherwise, they will suffer healthy fetuses.

The table grape Tukay was created at the Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking by Ya.I. Potapenko in Novocherkassk. The variety turned out to be unpretentious and frost-resistant. Tukay is loved for its rich harvest and long shelf life of berries, which are very tasty.

Tukay grapes

Benefits:

  • early, in July it is already beginning to ripen
  • large bunches - up to 1.5 kilograms
  • fragrant and tasty berries
  • has female and male flowers, therefore self-pollinated
  • fruits can be stored until spring, if the temperature regime is observed (from +1 to + 8 ° C).

  • needs proper pruning, otherwise the clusters will be small
  • can be affected by a felt mite.

When pruning in the spring, 30-40 eyes are left, and the rest of the shoots are broken off by hand. It is difficult to get rid of a felt mite.

The variety was obtained by crossing grapes by the Queen of Vineyards and Alphonse Lavalle. The brushes are large: length 18-30 cm, width 12-20 cm. Weight - 350-500 g. The berries are large. Their weight reaches nine grams. The color of the peel is violet-red, with a waxy bloom.

Grape variety Cardinal

Cardinal belongs to the early varieties. Ripening time - 105-110 days. Self-pollinated.

Benefits:

  • excellent taste and attractive appearance
  • large berries
  • suitable for long-term storage
  • good transportability.

  • low resistance to diseases and pests
  • shedding flowers and peas at high humidity
  • the need for careful care
  • poor frost resistance.

This variety was bred in the USA by Isabell Gibbs. Hence the name. Isabella, like some other American "gifts" (Colorado potato beetle, ash-leaved maple), turned out to be very tenacious. He does not care about the Epiphany frosts of central Russia. Also, it is practically not affected by any diseases characteristic of grapes.

Grape variety Isabella

At one time there was information that Isabella was harmful, since a lot of methyl alcohol is released during the preparation of wine, but later this information was denied.

Benefits:

  • taste qualities
  • low calorie content
  • high yield
  • unpretentiousness.

Disadvantage for some winegrowers, the late harvest period can be called October-November.

Rylines Pink Seedlis

Of all the varieties described in this article, Rylines Pink Seedlis differs in that it lacks seeds. The berries are in the shape of a ball, small, pink with strawberry aroma. The bunches are compact. Harvesting is in mid-September.

Rylines Pink Seedlis Grape

Benefits:

  • lack of bones
  • high frost resistance
  • rapid growth of vines
  • very early ripening
  • resistance to fungal diseases
  • increased content of useful microelements (vitamin A, B vitamins, iron and iodine).

  • in rainy weather in the ripening phase, the berries are prone to cracking
  • small fruits.

Literally 200 years ago, grapes in Russia were grown only in the southern regions and a little in the center of the country. Now it is grown in the Urals, and in the middle lane it is widespread everywhere. But breeders do not stop at their research. And, rest assured, many wonderful frost-resistant varieties adapted for our country will soon see the light.


Features of growing frost-resistant varieties

The success of growing grapes in certain climatic conditions critically depends on the temperature regime of the region. It is known that the need for the amount of heat and sunny days for different grape varieties is significantly different. Low freezing temperatures sharply limit the use of varieties that are especially demanding for heat. When grape bushes are damaged by severe frosts, their mass death occurs. The highest degree of frost resistance is manifested in plants during deep winter dormancy. With the transition at the end of winter from organic dormancy to forced, and then by the beginning of the growing season, the frost resistance of grapes decreases. Returning spring frosts affect the flower buds that are most sensitive to cold. The minimum probability of frost damage to grapes is during the budding and flowering period. The vine is the most resistant to frost. Unlike flower buds and grape roots, it is able to withstand even twenty-degree frosts. If, as a result of very severe cold weather, the vine is frozen, in the spring new replacement shoots grow from the dormant buds and the bush is restored within one growing season.

Video: choosing grape varieties - advice for novice gardeners

Caring for grapes of frost-resistant varieties is basically the same as caring for ordinary varieties. It consists in loosening the soil directly under the bushes and in the aisles, regular watering, weed control, correct formation and timely pruning of bushes, prevention of fungal diseases. The choice of the variety that is most suitable for specific climatic conditions, the time and place of planting grape seedlings is of decisive importance. In areas where cover varieties are grown in winter, grapes must be covered with suitable materials, which provides protection against frost damage and as a result of sudden winter thaws. Seedlings of frost-resistant grapes up to four years of age are subject to compulsory shelter for the winter, regardless of whether it is a covering variety or not.

Video: snow shelter of grape bushes

Despite the fact that frost-resistant varieties are able to withstand severe frosts, they require some preparation for winter. The grapes removed from the trellises should be laid on the ground, or better - on boards, roofing felt or wooden shields.Then the sleeves and vines are pressed down with coniferous spruce branches, pieces of foam, linoleum and covered with agrofibre folded in several layers, and on top with a film to protect against moisture. Under a snowdrift, the grapes covered in this way will winter safely even in severe frosts and icing. It has been experimentally established that 10 cm of the height of a snowdrift keeps grapes at ten degrees above zero.

Usually, around the end of October, I remove my grapes from the trellises, prune them, always leaving 3-4 large vines, and on each one - 1 replacement knot and 1 fruiting vine. Weak and crooked shoots coming from the root, I remove, and the shoots that have fruited in the current year are also cut to the fruiting vine, without leaving a hemp. Old and gnarled shoots, with cracked bark, coming from the root, I cut out at the base. After I cut all the grapes, I lay them on the ground, pressing the vines with sticks so that they do not spring. So he waits until spring.

O. Strogova, experienced gardener, Samara

Magazine "Household economy", No. 6, June 2012

Fruiting grapes exclusively on the growth of the current year, annual ripe stems - vines. Therefore, annual shoots are the basis of the harvest. Seedlings of the second year in early spring must be pruned so that the skeletal arms of the bush begin to form. Starting from the age of three, in the spring, grape shoots opened after winter are tied up on previously prepared supports - trellises. The grape bushes of the covering varieties are cut in two stages: in the fall - before the bushes are sheltered before the onset of frost and in the spring - after the bushes open before the buds open and the growing season begins. When pruning, such a number of eyes (future fruitful shoots) are left, which provides a high yield without reducing the strength of the bush. The number of eyes remaining after trimming is called the load of the bush.

Video: pruning a young grape bush

Pruning grapes of non-covering varieties has its own characteristics: the bushes are pruned mainly in the autumn-winter period, two to three weeks after the leaves fall, and continue throughout the winter at zero or positive (+ 3-5 º C) temperatures until the buds begin to open ... Sleeves of non-covering varieties are fixed on arches, gazebos, walls of buildings.


3. Hydrangea

This flowering plant will perfectly decorate a shady and humid corner of the garden. The advantage of hydrangeas is not only that they bloom profusely and for a long time, they are also able to grow in acidic soil, unsuitable for many other crops.

The most winter-hardy types of hydrangea are treelike and paniculate. They are ideal for single and group plantings, and look good next to hosts, ferns and other shade-tolerant plants.


Review of non-sheltering winter-hardy varieties

All uncovered grape varieties have a common feature - the vine hibernates on a support without shelter. The culture is resistant to diseases, suitable for growing in all regions of Russia.

Isabel

The most popular winter-hardy variety, bred since the times of the USSR. The culture is more fond of a temperate climate, but it grows successfully in many regions. An uncovered grape variety is suitable for the Black Earth Region, and is most often in demand by winemakers. Fruits are round, slightly elongated, about 20 mm long. The dark blue skin is covered with a white bloom. The pulp is slimy, sour with a tart aftertaste, but saturated with a pronounced aroma.

Lydia

A good uncovered grape variety for the Krasnodar Territory and other regions with a temperate climate. In the northern regions, the vine is covered for the winter. Rounded berries become brown-red when ripe. The fruits are famous for their sharp pleasant aroma and are ideal for making wine and juice. Ripening of the crop occurs in 150 days.

Sharov's riddle

One of the best representatives of frost-resistant grape varieties for Siberia and other cold regions. The vine is able to withstand a drop in temperature below -30 o C. The uncovered early large-fruited grapes ripen in 3 months from the moment the buds open. Globular berries are not densely located on the brush. The skin is dark blue with a white bloom, not sour. The pulp is juicy, sweet. The mass of the brush is about 0.5 kg.

Ontario

A good winter-hardy non-sheltering grape variety for the Leningrad region and other cold regions was bred by American breeders. The fruit has an ideal ball shape. The bunches weigh about 250 g. Ripe berries become amber in color. Under the sun, the fruit glows so that you can see the bone. The pulp is slimy, sour-tart. The value of the fruit is in a sharp, pleasant aroma.

Bianca

A winter-hardy, uncovered grape variety is well suited for the Urals and other regions with a temperate climate. The berries are ripening early. In different sources, another name for a frost-resistant variety is found - Bianca or Bianco. The clusters grow small, weighing up to 100 g. The berries are small, spherical, but very sweet. The winter-hardy variety is considered a technical one, since the fruits are usually used for the production of table and fortified wines. Suitable winter-hardy uncovered grapes for the Rostov region, since the vine is able to withstand frosts up to - 27 o C. If the bush is a little bit frozen in winter, it will easily recover in spring.

The video provides an overview of Bianca:


What frost-resistant grape varieties are best planted in the Moscow region (with photo)

Moscow white - a universal grape variety for the Moscow region of early ripening. The berries are white, round or slightly oval, medium in size. The skin is thin. The pulp is juicy, with a good harmonious taste. Ripens in 125 days, relatively productive.

Look at the photo - this grape variety for the Moscow Region has clusters of medium density, cylindrical conical shape, medium size, weighing 220-330 g:

The flowers are bisexual. Leaves are medium to large in size, lobed, deeply dissected. The bushes are medium-sized. Pruning for 5-8 eyes.

Frost resistance up to -26 ° С. Shoots ripen well. Requires light shelter for the winter. Disease resistance is average.

The berries are used fresh and for processing.

A good grape seedling should have several well-developed heel roots.

Moscow early - a variety for dining purposes, very early ripening. When describing this grape variety for the Moscow region, it is especially worth noting medium-sized berries - they are white, rounded or slightly elongated. The pulp is juicy, dense, with a pleasant taste. Bunches of medium size, moderately dense, cylindrical-conical, weighing about 200 g. Fruitful variety.

The leaves are rather large, rounded, poorly dissected. The bushes are medium-sized. Average pruning for 6-8 eyes.

Frost resistance up to -25 ° С. Shoots ripen well. Requires light shelter for the winter. Resistance to diseases and pests is average.

The berries are consumed fresh and processed.

Moscow pink - a variety of table appointments of medium late ripening period. The berries are pink, oblong, large, weighing about 4-5 g. The skin is dense. The pulp is juicy, with a good harmonious taste. The bunches are loose, conical, large and very large in size, with an average weight of 420 g, maximum up to 900 g. Ripens in 135-140 days. High-yielding variety.

The flowers are bisexual. The leaves are rather large, lobed, deeply dissected. The bushes are vigorous. Medium pruning, 5-8 eyes.

Winter hardiness up to -25 ° С. The shoots have time to ripen. Requires compulsory shelter for the winter. Recommended for protected ground. Disease resistance is high.

Berries are used fresh.

Moscow sustainable - This is one of the best grape varieties for the Moscow region, universal, medium-early ripening. Berries are white with a golden sheen, round, small, weighing 2.5-3 g. Juicy pulp, good taste with nutmeg-pineapple aroma. The clusters are small, with a maximum weight of up to 120 g, loose, conical or cylindrical, very numerous. Ripens in 130-135 days.

The bushes are vigorous. The pruning is medium, 6-8, or 12 eyes long. The optimal load on the bush is 70-120 eyes.

Frost resistance up to -28 ° С. Shoots ripen well. The variety can be grown without shelter. Ideal for decorating gazebos, arches, walls. Possesses increased resistance to diseases and pests.

Berries are consumed fresh and used for processing.

Moscow black - a table variety of medium early ripening. The berries are large, ovoid, black. The skin is firm. The pulp is juicy, good taste. There are few seeds. Bunches are moderately dense, medium-sized, conical, winged, weighing about 250 g. Ripens in 115-125 days. Speaking about which varieties are suitable for the Moscow region, it is worth noting the high yield of this form.

The flowers are bisexual. The leaves are large, rounded, three-lobed. The bushes are vigorous. The trim type is medium.

Frost resistance up to -25 ° С. Shoots ripen well. Requires light shelter for the winter. Resistance to major diseases and pests is average.

Berries are consumed mainly fresh.

These photos show the grape varieties for the Moscow region, the description of which is given above:

Moscow early variety in the photo

Moscow pink variety in the photo

Moscow black variety in the photo


Watch the video: The Red Vinifera - Grape Video #45