Country chores in March
The arrival of spring among gardeners is a period of preparation for spring work in orchards and berry fields.
In mid-March, the snow begins to melt. To this end, scatter snow under the crowns of trees and shrubs, on ridges with strawberries and raspberries, freeing the aisles or separate areas from it (for sowing early vegetables) so that the soil here thaws earlier and can absorb melt water, which, as a rule, quickly drains away on frozen ground. To speed up the melting of snow, you can cover it with a transparent film, or sprinkle it with ash.
Do not cover snow under tree tops with manure, sawdust or other materials to stop it from falling off. This can harm the trees, since when positive air temperatures come, the crown of the tree awakens, requires nutrition and moisture, and the roots, being in the frozen ground, cannot yet work. In this case, the crown may dry out.
It is better to trample the snow around the trunk so that mice do not make their way to it.
In March, very often the bark of trees on the trunk and forks of skeletal branches is damaged by sunburn, which are caused by sharp temperature fluctuations. On sunny days, as a result of heating the bark during the day and a sharp drop in temperature at night, it cracks, then gradually dies off, lags behind the wood, forming wounds.
To protect trees from sunburn and frostbites, whitewash the boles and skeletal branches with a solution of lime, water-based paint or the "Protection" preparation. Before whitewashing fruit trees, clean the trunk and thick branches of mosses, lichens and old dead bark particles that serve as a refuge for garden pests and pathogens.
Use scrapers or wire mesh to clean the dead bark of old trees; for young trees - wooden knives and straw bundles. Place old plastic under the tree. Remove all debris from cleaning the bark from the garden and be sure to burn it. Clean the hollows on old trees of rot and debris, seal them tightly with dry wood corks and then cover them.
If the crown of young trees was covered with snow, then the crust of the crust formed in March can break the branches. In this case, carefully destroy the crust with a pitchfork and free the branches from under the snow. After the snow melts, drain excess water in the area into ditches and check the trees (especially young ones) for damage by rodents. If the trees are damaged by hares, which usually nibble on young branches, cut them with pruning shears on a bud or side branch. If the bark on the tree is eaten by mice, then if a significant part of the bark is damaged, coat it with garden varnish. The coating will protect exposed fabrics from drying out.
In case of circular damage to the bark to save the tree, inoculate with a bridge when sap flow begins. Clean the circular damage to the bark with a sharp garden knife, cover it and bandage it with sacking, keeping the strapping until the moment of grafting with a bridge. And in March, prepare healthy strong annual shoots of winter-hardy varieties for grafting, wrap them in a damp cloth, and then in a film and store them in a cold place until grafting so that the buds do not start vegetating on them.
At the end of March, when the danger of a return of strong and persistent frosts has passed, start pruning trees and shrubs on warm days. Prepare a pruning tool in advance: sharpen saws, garden knives and pruning shears, purchase a garden varnish or its substitutes for covering up wounds.
Start pruning with the so-called sanitary practices - by removing primarily dry, diseased, broken and intertwined branches. Then proceed with detailed shaping pruning. When cutting branches on a ring, do not leave stumps that interfere with wound healing, dry out, crack and become a place for pests and fungal infections.
When cutting large branches with a garden saw, hold them with your hand so that they do not break other branches or peel the bark when they fall. Be sure to clean the sections with a garden knife and immediately cover up the wounds. In addition to the apple tree in March, you can cut pear, mountain ash, currant, gooseberry, honeysuckle.
Cut young trees (3-5 years old) heavily damaged by frost to a healthy place, then young shoots will develop from the dormant buds on the remaining healthy part of the tree, from which you will form a new crown in the future.
At the end of March, prepare cuttings of the desired varieties of fruit crops if you have planned grafting in the crown or growing seedlings. Prepare cuttings of currants and gooseberries for propagation of the best varieties, tie them in bunches, tie labels with the name of the variety and put them in a glacier or snowfield, covering it with sawdust on top to stop the snow from melting. If the cuttings were harvested in the fall and were stored in a cellar or glacier, revise them, discarding those that are underpowered, moldy or dried out.
When forming and pruning blackcurrant and gooseberry bushes, trim the twisted, dried tops of the shoots, covered with a gray felt bloom with black dots - this is the result of last year's damage to the bushes with powdery mildew. Burn the tips after pruning to prevent the spread of the disease.
When pruning currants, pay attention to branches with a corroded core - this is damage by currant glass. Be sure to cut such branches to the base and burn them, as there are glass caterpillars inside them. Otherwise, the caterpillars will go down to the base of the bush and damage new branches.
Collect and burn the heavily swollen, pale yellow currant buds that are infested with kidney mites. As a rule, up to 3-8 thousand ticks and their larvae are inhabited in each such kidney. These buds do not bloom and dry up. Uproot and burn currant bushes heavily affected by a tick.
In March, start preparing for the arrival of the feathered helpers, renovate the bird houses and hang them in the garden. Prepare and sharpen your garden tools by the beginning of spring work, purchase seeds, fertilizers, plastic wrap and all the necessary materials.
candidate of agricultural sciences
Works in March on the garden plot - garden and vegetable garden
part of its plantations is concentrated
in the south of Russia. However, in connection with the appearance of
winter hardy varieties, interest in this culture
in the middle lane increases every year.
In terms of yield and taste, northern varieties
unlike cherries and southern varieties of cherries, not
are affected by fungal diseases - coccomycosis and moniliosis.
Many gardeners want to grow cherries in their garden, but they face
with certain difficulties. Winter damage to the bark occurs on boles and forks
skeletal branches in the form of sunburn and frostbites. Often, trees are weakly fruiting.
shrink and even perish. Perhaps the reasons lie in certain miscalculations made when
growing this fertile culture. After all, we must take into account its biological
features, requirements for growing conditions.
Therefore, we will focus on some of the features of growing cherries in the middle lane.
Russia, right up to its northern border.
First of all, you need to remember that sweet cherry is a southern, thermophilic culture.
Moscow region is the northern border of its cultivation. Long-term observations
showed that during hardening (gradual decrease in temperature)
cherry crown can withstand winter frosts down to -ZO'C. Frosts of 20-25 ° C are more dangerous for her.
at the beginning of winter, when the plants do not have time to undergo hardening. Spring frosts (in March up to -5-20 ° С)
and after thaws (0-2 ° C) they also cause significant damage, damaging the bark on the trunks and
bases of skeletal branches, flower buds and annual growths.
Damage to buds, flowers and young ovaries in cherries occurs more often than
in cherries due to their lower winter hardiness and earlier flowering periods. Such unfavorable
weather conditions are more frequent to the north and northeast
from Moscow and less often to the south. That is, the cultivation of cherries in the Sergiev area
Posada and Dmitrova are very risky. Here cherries bear fruit less regularly,
and yields are much lower. So, in the garden plots north of Moscow
out of 12 years, only 6 were with a harvest, which, on average, amounted to 8 kg per tree.
While in the hellish partnerships located south of Moscow, for
The last 12 years of fruiting of sweet cherries have yielded 10 yields.
the average yield by varieties was 15 kg per tree.
In favorable years, the maximum yield can be up to 40 kg per tree.
Most often occur at the beginning and at the end of winter. They manifest themselves in the form of sunburn, and
also cracking and flaking of the bark on young 3-5 year olds
trees. To avoid such troubles, tree trunks in the fall
cover with spruce branches. Desirable in late autumn (October-November) and late winter
(in February) whitewash the boles and bases of the skeletal branches.
The finished whitewash must contain glue and pesticides. Therefore, it is more preferable for
compared with ordinary slaked lime.
Bark on the trunk and skeletal branches due to uneven growth of cells in various tissues
(bark, wood, core) often bursts during the growing season, and it breaks.
To prevent this from happening, in the spring (in May), furrow is carried out - vertical (from top to bottom)
intermittent cuts in the bark throughout the stem and bases
skeletal branches. The length of the cuts is 15-20 cm, the distance between them vertically 1-2, horizontally
t ali - 8-10 cm. The depth of the cut is up to the top layer of wood.
Cuts in the bark with a sharp knife heal better than torn tears,
which occur naturally. The resistance of trees to burns essentially depends on the variety, water and nutritional regimes during the growing season.
period. With insufficient moisture, cherries suffer more. Introduction
complete mineral fertilizers with normal moisture reduces burns,
from which young trees suffer more. Burns are less damaged
According to the observations of M.V. Kanshina (All-Russian Research Institute of Lupine, Bryansk Region)
and N.G. Morozova (VSTISP, Moscow) in the conditions of the Bryansk region and the Moscow region
the most winter-hardy varieties turned out to be: Bryansk pink, Revna, Iput, Veda,
Tyutchѳvka, in addition, for the Moscow region it is also suitable Fatezh.
It can be another negative reason for the poor harvest of northern cherries and
caused by various circumstances. One of them is close (less than 1.5 m from
soil surface) the location of groundwater. Sweet cherry loves loose-lumpy soil well
permeable to water and air.
Waterlogging has a depressing effect on her. Growth weakens, annual
the growth of shoots decreases to 8-10 cm.Already at the age of 5-6 years, the top of the tree dries out, then-
small branches, a little later - larger.
Another case - groundwater is deep enough, but due to
close (at a depth of 40-60 cm) location of dense clay rock thawed
water is in the spring for 2-3 weeks. This leads to soaking of the roots, which
suffocate from lack of oxygen. To prevent this from happening, around the garden you need to
dig ditches 60-80 cm deep to drain excess water to lower locations.
It happens that the cherry blossoms profusely, but sets single fruits. One of the reasons is the lack of
all kinds of pollinating varieties. As you know, sweet cherry belongs to
the number of cross-pollinated crops. Therefore, in the garden you need to have,
at least two different varieties. It is advisable to plant them 3-4 m apart.
Planting cherries interspersed with other fruit crops (apple tree,
pear, draining) or placement at different ends of the site makes it difficult for the mutual pollination of varieties and their good fruiting. According to the observations of N.G. Morozova
good pollinators for most varieties - Crimean and Fatezh.
In the absence of free space in the garden, they resort to planting seedlings,
in the crown of which you have grafted 2-3 different varieties. They usually pollinate well each other
friend and bear fruit well.
Sweet cherries love neutral soils. And prevail in the Central region of Russia
sod-podzolic, sour. Therefore, it is advisable to conduct them once every 3-4 years.
liming. On light sandy loam, 300-00 g of lime are applied per 1 sq.
thin - 600-800 g In autumn or early spring, lime is evenly scattered under
crown of trees and sealed to a depth of 15-20 cm by deep loosening or
digging. On limed soils, plants better absorb basic nutrients from
soil and applied fertilizers. Lime is also necessary for sweet cherry plants to form
bones during fruit ripening.
ROOTS FOR CHERRY
In the Central Black Earth Region, cherries are used as a rootstock for cherries.
Magaleb (antipka). Vegetatively propagated rootstocks are recommended for Non-Black Earth Region.
VTs-ІЗ, LC-52, Muscovy, Izmailovsky. Some breeders prefer cherries (for example,
grade Vladimirskaya), I am not a supporter of that.
My many years of experience have shown that when using cherries as a rootstock,
in the first 3-4 years the cherry grows well and begins to bear fruit. But by the age of 7-9
thickening is observed in the place of fusion of the scion with the stock. This speaks of inconsistencies
locality of the grafted variety with stock.
Such trees have poor anchoring, they tilt under the weight of the crown and harvest.
and require the installation of backups.
Moreover, they are short-lived. Therefore, when buying seedlings, take an interest in
what kind of rootstock the cherry variety you have acquired is grafted.
The yield and longevity of cherries largely depend on proper pruning. Sweet cherry
has a high kidney awakening and a weak shoot-forming ability, which
causes a relatively weak thickening of the crown at early stages of development. In young age
cherries often have annual increments
length 60-80 cm and more. To enhance branching in the middle of summer, they are pinched.
or in spring - shortening by 1/3 of the length. To lower the height of the trees upon reaching
with a height of 3 m, the leader is removed with a transfer to the outer branch closest to him.
With age, there is a weakening of growth processes. With a decrease in the length of the shoots, the number of flower buds increases, but the duration
life of bouquet twigs (from 10 years in the period of full fruiting to 2-3 in the aging
age). The yield decreases, the crown thickens. There is a need for it
thinning, the use of anti-aging pruning, To do this, remove 4-5-year-old branches on the side
branches located closer to the trunk of the tree.
How to spray the garden
Hello dear friends!
Gardeners must remember: it is easier to prevent the occurrence of diseases and pests than to get rid of them later.
In my previous article "How and when to spray fruit trees" I spoke in detail about the protection of pome and stone fruit crops, and today, in the article "How to spray the garden»I will talk about the protection of berry bushes.
In the spring, on currants and gooseberries, before budding, the bushes need to be treated with hot water, the temperature of which is 80 - 85 degrees. Shoots inhabited by bud currant mites or glass currant must be cut off.
On strawberries, plant residues should be removed, the bushes should be fed with mineral fertilizers and sprayed with copper-containing preparations. It can be: 1% Bordeaux mixture (100 grams of lime + 100 grams of copper sulfate per 10 liters of water), copper oxychloride - the drug "HOM" (40-50 grams per 10 liters of water), "Kartotsid" (50 grams per 10 liters water), "Copper sulfate" (50 - 100 grams per 10 liters of water).
On raspberries, it is necessary to cut out old, fruiting shoots and those that are inhabited by raspberry stem gall midge, followed by their processing with copper sulfate (25 - 50 grams per 10 liters of water)
The most promising berry crop in our gardens is grapes, the resistance of which to diseases and pests is especially dependent on weather conditions. Nobody knows what summer will be like, so don't wait for harmful pathogens to appear.
During the period of swelling of the kidneys from fungal diseases (Mildew, oidium, anthractose, black spot), spray the grape bushes with preparations containing copper. Subsequent treatments (before and after flowering) can be carried out with "Gray colloidal" (80 grams per 10 liters of water), "Cumulus" (60 grams per 10 liters of water).
To protect against Mildew, the leaves must be sprayed from the underside.
From leaf rollers and other pests, grapes can be treated with "Karbofos" (70 - 90 grams per 10 liters of water), and from ticks with "Neoron" (15 - 20 milliliters per 10 liters of water)
For today, this is all that I wanted to tell you in the article. How to spray the garden on the protection of berry bushes. Read about tree protection in the article "How and when to spray fruit trees"
I wish you a great harvest! Until next time, friends!