The herbaceous perennial plant shallots (Allium ascalonicum), also called shallots, Old Believers, bush, family onion, Ashkelon onion, charlotte, shrike, or bush, is a representative of the Onion family. The homeland of this type of onion is Asia Minor, but today it is widespread in Moldova, Western Europe, Ukraine and the Caucasus. For food, they use the young foliage of the plant, as well as its small bulbs, which are distinguished by an exquisite taste and good smell. For reproduction of such onions, the seed method is used, while the sowing of seeds is carried out in open ground in the spring or in late autumn. In winter, its bulbs are planted for forcing in order to get greens. For a long time, man has known that such a culture has medicinal properties.
Brief description of cultivation
- Landing... In order to get greens in May, planting shallots in open soil is carried out in March – April. And so that the greens are already in April, they resort to winter sowing, which is carried out in mid-October.
- Illumination... Needs a lot of glare from the sun.
- Priming... The soil should be nutritious, loose, neutral and moderately moist. A humus loamy or humus-sandy soil is best suited.
- Watering... During the growing season, the bushes are watered at least 3 times. When there are 30 days left before harvesting, all watering must be stopped. During a long dry period, water the shallots once every 7 days.
- Fertilizer... For fertilizing, mineral fertilizers and organic matter are used. 4 weeks before harvesting, the onions are no longer fed.
- Reproduction... Shallots are grown from seeds and propagated by sevk (vegetatively).
- Harmful insects... Onion flies.
- Diseases... Powdery mildew, downy mildew (downy mildew), fusarium wilting and neck rot.
- Properties... Such a medicinal plant belongs to dietary products.
Features of shallots
Shallots are herbaceous perennials that form "nests", which is why they are also called multi-insect or family. The fibrous root system branches weakly, it is located in the arable layer. Hollow thin tubular cone-shaped leaf plates remain tender for a long time. Feathers can be painted in various shades of green, in some cases there is a coating of wax on the surface of the foliage. On the surface of the slightly elongated bulbs, there are thin scales. Bulb weight usually varies from 20 to 50 grams, but there are some hybrid varieties in which the bulb weighs from 90 to 100 grams. As a rule, the inner scales are white with a pink, purple or pale green tint. The cover scales can vary in color from purple to white.
The bulbs are perfectly preserved in room conditions before sowing in the spring. These onions, grown in warm climates, tend to be dark in color and have a semi-pungent flavor. In regions with a cool climate, shallots are often cultivated, which have a pungent taste.
A loose umbrella-shaped inflorescence is located on an arrow, the height of which can reach about 100 cm, it contains flowers that do not represent any decorative value. The seeds are similar to the seed material of onions, but they have a smaller size, they remain viable for two to three years. The most popular is the vegetative propagation of shallots, but after some time the bulbs lose their varietal qualities, and there is also a gradual accumulation of diseases in them, which has an extremely negative effect on the yield. To fix this, you need to buy fresh planting material, or you can grow seedlings from seeds with your own hands. When sowing seeds during the first year of growth, a multi-set bulb (similar to garlic) is formed, which breaks down into 5 bulbs. If planted early next season, they will form nests with more bulbs.
Shallot agrotechnics - a full cycle from planting to storage
Planting shallots outdoors
What time to plant
Shallots are planted on the turnip and on the feather. The planting of bulbs in open soil is carried out in March-April after the soil on the site warms up well, in this case, the cutting of greenery can be carried out in May, and the turnip will grow in June. Thanks to the winter planting of shallots, you can get greens even earlier. The planting is carried out in mid-October in such a way that the bulbs have time to take root well, but do not start growing. Greens on such onions will grow in April, while the turnip will grow in June. In order to have vitamin greens on your table in winter, the bulbs are planted for distillation in room conditions.
For planting, you should choose a well-lit area, and since this plant can easily interbreed with onions, try not to place their beds close to each other. For such a culture, nutritious loose soil is suitable, which, moreover, should be neutral and moderately moist. The preparation of the site for shallots is carried out in advance. Best of all, such a culture grows on wet humus-sandy loamy or light humus soil.
If a spring planting is planned, then the preparation of the site is carried out in the fall. To do this, remove all weeds from it, and then dig it to a depth of 20 to 25 centimeters with the simultaneous introduction of 1 tsp into the soil. superphosphate, 2-3 tbsp. wood ash, 3-4 kilograms of humus or compost and 1 hour of urea per 1 square meter of the garden. In spring, before planting, nitrogen fertilizer should be applied to the ground (25 grams per 1 square meter of the plot). If the planting is planned for the fall, then the preparation of the site should be done in the summer.
Good and bad predecessors
In order for the cultivation of shallots to be successful, it is imperative to adhere to the rules of crop rotation. Good predecessors for such a plant are: cucumbers, zucchini, legumes, tomatoes, potatoes and cabbage. And those areas where corn, garlic, sunflowers, beets and carrots were previously grown are not suitable for planting this onion. However, experienced gardeners recommend placing beds with carrots and shallots next to them, since these vegetable crops are able to protect each other, so the smell of shallots can scare off carrot pests and vice versa. It is also recommended to grow strawberries, radishes, various types of salad and cucumbers next to the shallot bed. In the area where the shallot grew, it can be grown again no earlier than 3 years later.
Planting material needs pre-sowing preparation. First you need to sort it out. Bulbs weighing about 30 grams and reaching 30 mm in diameter are considered the best, since they form a larger number of bulbs. Smaller bulbs have a lower yield, so it is recommended to plant them before winter. Larger bulbs form too many small bulbs.
When about 7 days remain before planting in open soil, for the prevention of fungal diseases, including downy mildew, the planting material is heated in warm water (from 40 to 42 degrees) for 8-10 hours. This can be omitted, then just before planting the bulbs in the ground for 30 minutes. immersed in a solution of potassium permanganate or fungicidal preparation.
The bulbs are planted in a pre-prepared groove, keeping a distance of about 10 centimeters between them. If small bulbs are planted, then the distance between the rows should be from 8 to 10 centimeters, for medium ones - from 15 to 18 centimeters, for large ones - from 20 to 30 centimeters. The planting is carried out in moistened soil, while after planting the bulbs should be in the soil at a depth of 20 to 30 mm. With a deeper planting, there is a delay in foliage growth and a decrease in yield, but if the bulbs are planted at a shallower depth, they will bulge out of the ground. When the shallots are planted, the surface of the beds is covered with a layer of peat or humus. In order for the greens to appear as soon as possible, immediately before planting the seedlings, it must be cut by the shoulders, but it must be borne in mind that in this case the yield of both the turnip and the greens will decrease.
Planting onions in the fall before winter. The subtleties of planting onions
Shallots are planted in open soil in autumn, just like in spring. Then the surface of the bed must be covered with a layer of mulch (peat), the thickness of which should be from 35 to 40 mm. Remember that during winter planting, the bulbs are buried in the ground more than during spring planting.
Although such a culture is distinguished by its frost resistance (it can withstand frosts down to minus 20 degrees, while after complete freezing it retains its vitality), it is still recommended to plant before winter only in the southern regions. The fact is that in middle latitudes, in Siberia and the Urals, there is a high probability that with this method of planting about half of all bulbs will die from frost. But the bulbs that survived in the soil in winter form more foliage than bulbs that were planted in the spring. After planting in winter, green leaves begin to grow immediately after the snow cover disappears.
Growing shallots from seeds
If for several years only bulbs are used for reproduction of shallots, this can cause the bulbs to be chopped, yield significantly reduced, and also in this case, a gradual accumulation of diseases is observed. Experts advise, in this regard, 1 time in 10-15 years to update the planting material, for this they grow new bulbs from seeds. From seeds sown in spring, the seedlings will be formed in September. It is a small nest containing small bulbs. They can be used as planting material in the next season.
Growing shallots on your property is easy. To do this, it must be weeded in time, watered, loosened the soil surface around the bushes during the period of intensive growth, fed, and, if necessary, protected from harmful insects and diseases.
The surface of the garden is loosened regularly 1 or 2 times in 7 days, and in order to prevent the defeat of bushes by viral diseases, which today are incurable, weeds must be removed from the site in a timely manner and harmful insects must be dealt with. In the first days of July, seedlings should be thinned, in this case the bulbs will be larger. During this period, it is recommended to suspend watering and feeding, otherwise the bushes will actively grow greens, and not bulbs. As soon as the arrow appears, it needs to be broken, do not allow it to grow longer than 10 centimeters.
On average, throughout the growing season, a garden bed with such onions is watered at least 3 times. Most of all, the bushes need moisture at the beginning of the growing season. When there are 30 days left before harvesting, you must stop watering the garden altogether. When moistening the area with shallots, it is necessary to adhere to this principle - not to allow excessive drying of the soil. If it often rains in the summer, then the number of watering should be reduced, and in a prolonged drought, this procedure, on the contrary, is carried out more often. If there is a drought under the condition of high cloudiness, then watering is carried out 1 time in 7 days.
To harvest a good harvest of shallots, it must be fed on time. To feed such a plant, you can use organic matter, for example, a solution of mullein (1:10) or bird droppings (1:15). For feeding, you can also use a solution of complex mineral fertilizer (for 1 bucket of water 40 grams). When 4 weeks remain before harvesting, all feeding is stopped, otherwise the bushes will not grow bulbs, but greens. In order to increase the size of the turnip, experienced gardeners advise, when the nest is fully formed, shake off the soil from it, and remove all small onions along with herbs that can be used for cooking or for freezing.
Pests and diseases of shallots
If the weather is damp and cool, then there is a high probability that the onion will be affected by a fungal disease, namely, downy mildew (peronosporosis), cervical rot, powdery mildew or fusarium wilt. All affected bushes are dug up and destroyed immediately after they are found, while the remaining healthy plants must be treated with a solution of Mikosan, Quadris or Pentofag. Remember that shallots sprayed with chemicals are prohibited for some time (the duration of exposure to toxic substances can be found in the instructions for use of the product). In order to prevent fungal diseases, the planting material is immersed in the Maxim solution for half an hour immediately before planting. If in the next season you need shallot seed, then before sending it for storage in the fall, it is also processed by Maxim.
An onion fly can harm such an onion, which can appear on the site during the flowering of cherries and dandelions. The bushes on which the fly has settled begin to rot and wither. In order to get rid of such a harmful insect, it is recommended to dust the bushes and the surface of the garden with wood ash. If worms appear on the shallots, then in order to get rid of them, it is recommended to spray the foliage of the plants with a saline solution (for 1 bucket of water, 1 tbsp. Salt).
The onion nematode can greatly harm this culture, which contributes to the curvature of the bottom of the parent bulb. If a bulb infected with such a pest is planted in a garden bed, this can lead to damage to other bulbs. Before planting such bulbs in the ground, they should be kept in a formalin solution (4%) for several minutes or heated for 60 minutes by placing them in a thermos filled with warm (about 45 degrees) water.
A garden aphid can settle on the delicate foliage of such an onion. If there is a lot of such a pest on the site, then this can become a rather serious problem for the gardener. To combat aphids, various folk remedies are often used, for example: decoction of potato peel, pepper or chamomile. You can also use acaricides for this purpose, for example, Verticillin, which copes well with aphids that have settled on shallots.
Diseases of Shallots and Prevention of Infection
Harvesting and storing shallots
It is necessary to harvest the shallots in a timely manner, as if they are in the soil for too long, they may germinate. As soon as more than ½ of the foliage is dry, you can start digging the nests. The bulbs removed from the soil are placed for several days in a shaded place for drying. Then the dried foliage is cut off, and the nests are disassembled into bulbs, which are poured into boxes, boxes or nets, and stored in a dry and cool place. If the foliage is not cut off, then weave braids from the bow. With this storage, shallots retain their qualities for 5-7 months, but do not forget to systematically inspect vegetables in order to timely remove those on which rot has appeared.
Such onions are also stored in a peeled form.To do this, the onions are peeled, cut into pieces, slightly moistened and placed in the freezer for freezing. Frozen onions are poured into plastic containers, which are put back into the freezer for storage. You can freeze shallots in the same way. This onion fully retains its qualities when frozen.
Harvest shallots: how to harvest and preserve on time
Types and varieties of shallots
There are many varieties of shallots, which are divided into early ripening, medium ripening and late ripening. And the varieties are divided into sharp, semi-sharp and sweet, as well as by the number of bulbs in the nest and by the color of the covering scales.
The best early varieties
- Emerald... Round-shaped bulbs are covered with brownish-pink husks, they weigh 20-30 grams. In one nest, no more than 5 onions grow with peninsular white flesh.
- Snowball... This variety has excellent keeping quality. The dense egg-shaped bulbs weigh about 32 grams, the white juicy pulp has a pungent taste.
- Sprint... This onion is one of the best early maturing varieties, it is resistant to downy mildew. The taste of large onions is spicy, they weigh about 40 grams. No more than 10 bulbs grow in one nest.
- Belozerets 94... The variety has good keeping quality and high yield. The shape of the bulbs is oval-rounded or round, they weigh on average from 21 to 27 grams. They are covered with a pale lilac husk with a yellowish tinge, and their flesh is a sharp juicy lilac-purple color.
- Cascade... The variety has a high yield and excellent keeping quality. Bulb bulbs weigh about 35 grams. The color of the husk and juicy pulp is pink.
- Family... The variety is distinguished by its high disease resistance and a semi-sharp taste. The rounded bulbs are covered with a brownish-yellow husk with a purple tint, they weigh about 22 grams, the flesh is white. No more than 3-4 bulbs grow in one nest.
- SIR-7... This variety has excellent keeping quality and high yield. Bulbs weigh about 32 grams of spicy taste. 4–7 bulbs grow in one nest.
Even among gardeners, such early ripening varieties as: Zvezdochka, Off-season, Siberian yellow, etc. are popular.
The best varieties of medium ripening
- Albik... This sort of semi-sharp taste has a stable yield and excellent keeping quality. The shape of the bulbs is flat-rounded, and they weigh about 20-30 grams. 4-8 bulbs grow in one nest.
- Kuban yellow... This fruitful variety has a semi-sharp taste. In 1 nest, 3 or 4 bulbs of a flat-rounded shape grow, which on average weigh from 25 to 30 grams. The color of the covering scales is brownish-yellow, and the juicy pulp is white or pale green.
- Koinarsky... A high-yielding variety with a semi-sharp taste. The pinkish-brown bulbs weigh about 25 grams, their flesh is light lilac with a white tint.
- Guran... The variety has a semi-sharp taste. Round-shaped bulbs weigh about 26 grams. The color of the covering scales is brownish-gray. No more than 5 bulbs grow in one nest.
- Firebird... Flat-rounded bulbs weigh from 25 to 30 grams, they are covered with a brownish-yellow husk.
Still quite often grown such varieties of an average ripening period, such as: Chapaevsky, Uralsky 40, Uralsky violet, Garant, Gornyak, Afonya, Adreika, Krupnulukovichny, Kushchevka Kharkiv, Seryozha, Sophocles, Atlas, Bonilla hybrids, etc.
The best late-ripening varieties
- Kunak... The taste of this variety is semi-sharp. The bulbs are covered with yellow husks, they have a flat-rounded or rounded shape. 3 or 4 bulbs grow in one nest.
- Sturdy... This semi-sharp variety is resistant to shooting and rotting. In one nest, 4–5 bulbs are formed, which can weigh 23–52 grams. They are covered with dry pink scales. The juicy flesh has a pale red color.
- Siberian amber... In one nest, 6 or 7 flat-rounded bulbs with yellow covering scales and white flesh grow. On average, the bulbs weigh about 28-30 grams.
- Merneulsky (Bargalinsky)... High yield variety. Large, elongated-oval bulbs weigh 50–90 grams. The color of dry covering scales is yellow-pink, the pulp is juicy and white. 4–6 onions are formed in one nest.
- Vonsky... The variety is resistant to diseases and harmful insects, as well as to unfavorable growing conditions. In one nest, 3 or 4 onions weighing 30–70 grams are formed, the covering scales are red, and the flesh is white.
Properties of shallots: harm and benefit
Useful properties of shallots
Shallots are very similar in composition to onions. Bulbs and foliage contain essential oil, B vitamins, carotenoids and phytoncides. But ascorbic acid, minerals and sugars in onions are less than in shallots. Such onions also contain salts of phosphorus, iron, potassium, calcium, as well as cobalt, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, silicon, vanadium, titanium and germanium.
For a long time, in alternative medicine, such a vegetable has been used to treat diseases of the eyes and stomach. In cooking, young bulbs and foliage of such a plant, both fresh and pickled, are used. Shallot has a subtler taste compared to onions, which makes it highly prized in French cuisine; it is added to soups and sauces to add flavor to them, and it is also used in game and poultry delicacies.
It is necessary to use shallots with caution for those who have problems with the digestive tract and the genitourinary system, as it increases acidity, which can cause irritation of the intestinal mucosa or difficulty in urinating. Still, such a vegetable cannot be eaten for kidney and liver diseases, bronchospasm, constipation, pancreatic diseases, as it can provoke an exacerbation.
Why do we need shallots
The pledge of high-quality long-term flowering of crocosmia is an abundance of sunlight, so in the garden, define an open place for it on a hill. The soil on the site must be drained, and the close passage of groundwater is unacceptable. The preparation of the flower garden is carried out in the fall: the plot is dug up and humus (12–15 kg), slaked lime (100 g), superphosphate (35–40 g) and potassium chloride (15–20 g) are added to each m² of the planting area.
In the spring, the digging is repeated with the introduction of nitrogen-containing fertilizers at the rate of 25–30 g / m².
Types and varieties
The type of sowing pea, or vegetable (Pistum sativus) is genetically diverse. Its subspecies differ in leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds. But this classification is of interest only to botanists. Practitioners divide pea varieties by ripening periods into early, mid-ripening and late-ripening, and by their intended purpose they distinguish varieties:
Peeling (Pisum sativum convar.sativum) varieties
Smooth seed varieties, high in starch and low in free sugars.
Brain (Pisum sativum convar.medullare) varieties
Their peas are shriveled at the stage of biological ripeness, but they are used at the stage of technical ripeness. They contain a lot of sugar, so they are frozen and used for canning.
Sugar (Pisum sativum convar.axiphium) varieties
Varieties with small and very wrinkled seeds that do not have a layer of parchment in the pod, so they can be eaten with the pod.