Fruit and berry plants
Plant cherry (Latin Prunus avium), or bird cherry - a tree of the Pink family up to 10, and sometimes up to 30 meters high, growing naturally in Europe, Western Asia, North Africa and widespread in culture. It is the oldest form of cherry, which is 8000 BC. was already known in Europe, on the territory of modern Switzerland and Denmark, as well as in Anatolia. The name of the tree is derived from the toponym of the city of Kerasunta, which was located between Trebizond and Pharnacia and was famous for planting delicious cherries on its outskirts.
From Kerasunt came the Latin name for sweet cherry cerasi, Neapolitan cerasa, Turkish kiraz, French cerise, English cherry, Spanish cereza, and the Russian word for sweet cherry of the same origin. Moreover, in many languages the word meaning cherry also means cherry, therefore Chekhov's play is known abroad as "The Cherry Orchard", and there is no contradiction in this, since these cultures are very close relatives.
Planting and caring for cherries
- Landing: in the north they are planted only in spring, before the buds swell, in the south they can be planted in spring and autumn, in September-October.
- Bloom: late March or early April.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: chernozems, nutritious loams or sandy loam soils, in areas with deep groundwater.
- Watering: on average 3 times per season: before flowering, in the middle of summer and before winter. Water consumption - 1.5-2 buckets for each year of the tree's life.
- Top dressing: from the age of four: in May - mineral fertilizers at the root, at the end of July (after harvesting) - foliar feeding with potassium-phosphorus fertilizer and microelements, in August - with a solution of mullein (1:10) or chicken manure (1:20) at the root ...
- Cropping: annually in spring, before the start of sap flow, or in autumn, until the end of September. If necessary, you can prune cherries even in summer, after fruiting, but not in August-September.
- Reproduction: seeds and grafting.
- Pests: aphids, cherry flies, leaf rollers, cherry trumpets, winter moths, peppered moths, brown fruit and red apple mites, cherry shoot, miner and fruit striped moths, cherry, yellow plum and slimy sawflies, sapwood ringed, unpaired, bark beetle, and unpaired silkworms, apple glass.
- Diseases: coccomycosis, moniliosis, brown spot, witch's broom, plum dwarfism, false or sulfur-yellow tinder fungus, mosaic ringing, dying off of branches, scab, fruit rot, Steklenberg viros and clasterosporium.
Read more about growing cherries below.
Sweet cherry is a large woody plant that grows quickly at a young age. The root system of a tree is most often located horizontally, but under certain conditions, powerful vertical roots can form. For the first two years of life, the plant forms a taproot, which branches out over time. The crown of a cherry has an ovoid shape, which, depending on conditions, can also become conical. Cherry bark is brown, silvery or reddish, sometimes flaky with transverse films. Cherry shoots are formed of two types: brachyblasts - shortened shoots with one internode, and auxiblasts - powerful long shoots. The buds on the shoots of sweet cherry are of three types: vegetative, generative and mixed.
Cherry leaves are obovate, elongated, short-pointed, serrated along the edge, located on petioles up to 16 cm long with glands at the base of the leaf plate. White flowers open in late March or early April - a little earlier than the leaves, and form few-flowered sessile umbellate inflorescences. The cherry fruit is a spherical, oval or heart-shaped drupe with a juicy, fleshy pericarp of light yellow, red, dark red or almost black color, there are also varieties with a blush, and the fruits of wild cherries are smaller than the berries of cultivated cherries. The fruit reaches 2 cm in diameter, inside the pericarp there is a slightly elongated or spherical smooth bone with a seed consisting of endosperm, embryo and rind of a yellowish-brown color with a reddish tint.
Cherry lives up to 100 years, and begins to bear fruit from four to five years of age. In this article, we will tell you how to grow cherries from a seedling to an adult tree, how to properly care for cherries in order to maintain their health for many years, how to feed cherries so that they bear fruit abundantly from year to year, and we will provide a lot of important and interesting information about growing and caring for cherries.
When to plant
In areas with a warm climate, cherry seedlings are planted in the fall, a few weeks before the soil freezes, and in the northern area - in the spring, before the buds swell. Cherry grows best on the slopes of the south, southeast or southwest direction, or in other well-lit warm places, protected from the north and east wind. It is unacceptable to plant cherries in areas where the groundwater is too high, since the vertical roots of the plant can go 2 m deep into the ground. Low-lying places where melt water stays for a long time in spring are also not suitable for planting sweet cherries.
Sweet cherries prefer nutrient-rich loam or sandy loam soil, and peat soil, sand or clay are the worst you can offer them.
For cross-pollination of sweet cherries, pollinators are required - sweet cherry trees of 2-3 varieties located in the immediate vicinity of it. Or at least a few cherries that have the same flowering period as your cherry.
Planting in autumn
Planting cherries in the fall involves preliminary preparation of the site. Two weeks, three weeks before the autumn planting, a plot for cherries is dug up, adding up to 10 kg of compost, 180 g of superphosphate and 100 g of potassium fertilizer to each m². You can use a complex fertilizer for cherries and cherries at the rate of 200 g per m². Acidic soil must be limed: 400-500 g of lime per m² is applied to sandy loam soil, 600-800 g each, to heavy loams. This should be done a week before fertilization, since lime and fertilizer are not applied to the soil at the same time.
If you plant cherries in clay or sandy soil, you will have to bring the opposite type of soil into it for digging: in sand - clay, in clay - sand, but the introduction should be carried out several years before planting, and then, annually after such a mixing of soils, the site needs to be fertilized. Only years later, cherries planted in such a soil will grow and develop normally.
The cherry pit is prepared two weeks before planting. Its depth should be 60-80 cm, and its diameter should be about a meter. When digging, discard the fertile soil layer to one side and the lower, infertile layer to the other. A stake of such a height is driven into the center of the pit so that it protrudes 30-50 cm above the surface of the site. The fertile soil layer is mixed with aged compost, 200 g of superphosphate, 60 g of sulfur potassium and half a kilogram of ash.
Nitrogen fertilizers and lime are not applied during planting, as they can cause burns to the root system of the seedling. Part of the top layer of soil, thoroughly mixed with fertilizers, is poured with a slide around the peg, crushed, a layer of infertile soil is poured on top, leveled, watered and the hole is left for two weeks so that the soil settles in it.
How to choose planting material? When examining one-year or two-year-old seedlings when buying, you should first of all pay attention to their trunk: there should be a trace of vaccination on it. The grafted plant is almost certainly varietal, and varietal trees begin to bear fruit earlier, besides, the taste of their fruits is higher. The advantage of a seedling is a large number of branches, because the more there are, the easier it is to form the correct crown of the cherry.
But most important of all is the presence of a conductor. It must be in good condition, otherwise after the tree grows, the weak conductor will have competitors from the strong branches. If the seedling has two conductors, then with abundant fruiting there is a risk of breaking the tree between them, which can lead to the death of the cherry. There should be one guide, and he should be straight and strong. And finally, the roots: they should not be dry or damaged. In the open field, only seedlings with a developed, strong root system will take root.
During transportation, the root system of the seedling is wrapped in a wet cloth, and then in oilcloth or polyethylene. Leaves, if any, are best cut off from the tree, otherwise they will dehydrate the tree. Before planting in the ground, remove the dubious type of roots, as well as those that do not fit in the hole, place the roots of the plant for 2 hours in water to swell, and if they are dried, then for a longer period - up to 10 hours.
You can plant cherries until the ground is frozen. When planting, place the seedling in the hole so that the root collar is 5-7 cm above the surface level, spread the roots of the tree over the mound that was poured two weeks ago, and fill the hole with soil from the lower layer, while slightly shaking the seedling so that the soil fills the voids ... Pour a bucket of water into the hole so that the soil settles, and finish planting. Tamp the surface around the seedling and pour it with another bucket of water, making a 5 cm deep furrow around the cherry at a distance of 30 cm and fencing it from the outside with a shaft of soil.
Over time, the soil in the near-trunk circle will sag, and you will need to pour earth into it. If you are planting several cherries, place them on a plot at a distance of 4-5 meters from each other: sweet cherry is a large tree.
Sweet cherries are planted in the ground in the spring according to the same principle and according to the same scheme as in the fall. The site for planting is dug up in the fall, holes are dug and compost or humus is introduced into them in October-November, and then the pits are left until spring so that the soil in them settles and settles. When the snow melts and the earth dries out a little, mineral fertilizers are introduced into the pits, including nitrogen fertilizers, which are not applied in autumn, and after a week you can plant cherries. After planting, mulch the sweet cherry tree circles with peat or humus.
Freshly planted seedlings or those that you planted last fall are easy to care for. If you had time with planting before the buds swell, trim the crown, leaving a few skeletal branches on the seedling and cutting the rest into a ring without leaving hemp. Treat the slices with garden pitch. If sap flow has already begun, then postpone pruning until next spring.
Adult cherries are subjected to formative and sanitary pruning in the spring, but you need to have time to do this before the sap flow begins. When the air warms up to 18 ºC, trees are sprayed from pathogens and pests that have overwintered in the soil or in the bark.
The cherries laid in the ground when planting fertilizers will last for three years, and from the fourth year of life, cherries again need additional feeding. Nitrogen fertilizers, unlike potash and phosphorus fertilizers, will be needed for cherries already in the second year of life, and they are applied when the frosts pass and warm spring weather sets in. Re-nitrogen fertilizers, already in liquid form, are applied at the end of May.
In the spring, if necessary, cherries are grafted - the old tree is used as a rootstock, growing young, more productive cherries on its roots.
And, of course, in the spring, the garden needs watering, loosening the soil, removing weeds and root growth.
Summer cherry care
In summer, it is necessary to loosen the soil in the area with cherries to a depth of 8-10 cm. This can be done with a garden hoe and a hand cultivator a day after rain or watering, which is carried out 3 to 5 times per season, depending on the amount of rain. If you find signs of disease or the presence of harmful insects in the trees, do not hesitate with protective measures so as not to risk the harvest. You need to diagnose the problem and try to fix it right away.
In the summer, the formation of cherries continues: the wrongly growing shoots are pinched to weaken their growth, the shoots and branches thickening the crown are cut off. The regrown root shoots are cut out, not allowing it to grow. Cherry harvest in summer begins from late May or early June. If too much fruit is weighing on the tree, place props in the right places to prevent the branches from breaking off.
In the middle of summer, cherries are fed with potash and phosphorus fertilizers with the addition of trace elements. Sweet cherry in August needs to be fed with organic matter - mullein or poultry manure solution. The most important point for caring for cherries is keeping the trunks and row spacings clean.
How to care for the fall
In September or October, when the leaves begin to turn yellow and fall off, apply the last top dressing at the same time as digging the site to a depth of 10 cm.Before the mass fall of leaves, carry out a sub-winter water-charging watering of the trees, this is especially necessary if the summer was fruitful and the fall was dry. Collect the fallen leaves, burn it and carry out preventive treatment of cherries against pathogens and pests that are going to overwinter in the bark of trees or in the soil under them. At the end of October, whitewash the trunks and bases of the skeletal branches.
When the first frosts pass, cherries begin to prepare for winter.
Preventive treatment of cherries from diseases and pests is carried out in the spring, before the start of sap flow, and in the fall, during the period of massive leaf fall. How to process cherries? Dissolve 700 g of urea in 10 liters of water and spray the trees to destroy overwintered insects and pathogens.
Before processing cherries, make sure that the sap flow has not yet begun, because if the solution gets on the expanding kidneys, it can cause them to burn. From migratory pests, cherries are treated with drugs such as Akarin, Agravertin, Fitoverm, Iskra-bio. Simultaneously with preventive treatment, spraying of cherries with Zircon or Ecoberin is used, which increase the resistance of trees to adverse conditions and phenomena.
Cherries are watered on average three times per season: before flowering, spending 1.5-2 buckets of water for each year of the tree's life, in the middle of summer, especially if there is little or no rain at all, and before winter, combining moisture with application fertilizers. Before watering, the trunk circle is loosened, and after watering and top dressing, the site is mulched. In autumn, water-charging irrigation is carried out, trying to saturate the soil with moisture to a depth of 70-80 cm. This measure helps to increase the winter hardiness of cherries and does not allow the soil to freeze quickly.
How to fertilize cherries to stimulate their active growth and abundant fruiting? At the beginning of May, mineral fertilizers are applied to the previously loosened near-stem circles of cherries over four years old in such an amount per m2 of the plot: urea - 15-20 g, potassium sulfate - 15-25 g, superphosphate - 15-20 g. At the end of July, after harvest harvest, carry out foliar feeding of trees that have entered the fruiting age, potash and phosphorus fertilizers with the addition of necessary microelements.
In August, those trees that bear fruit especially abundantly are fed with organic fertilizers, diluting 1 part of a mullein in 8 parts of completely water or one part of chicken droppings in 20 parts of water.
The need of each tree for fertilizing is individual, and when deciding how and when to fertilize it, you should be guided by the appearance of the cherry, the state of the soil and weather conditions.
Adult cherries hibernate normally without shelter, and if you mulched the near-trunk area with peat, whitewashed the stems and bases of skeletal branches, then you can not worry about them. Young sweet cherries need to be covered for the winter. You can tie them with spruce branches, or you can wrap them in burlap, under which they will be just as warm. Do not use lutrasil or other artificial materials for shelter, as the plants underneath will grow.
When to trim
Planting and caring for cherries would not be at all burdensome if it were not for pruning the plant, which requires skills and understanding of the essence of the process. Cherries are pruned annually, starting from the first year of life. Pruning helps to increase the yield and quality of fruits, reduces the likelihood of disease, and prolongs the life of the tree. It is best to cut the cherries in the spring, before the sap flow begins, when the weather is warm and there will be no frosts at night.
However, it is a misconception that it is impossible to cut cherries at other times of the year. Cherries need to be pruned annually, so if you are suddenly late with pruning in the spring, transfer them to summer or fall.
How to trim
Young seedlings are cut when they reach a height of 50-70cm. The lower lateral branch of the cherry is shortened to 50-60 cm, and the rest - to the level of its cut. The conductor should not be more than 15 cm higher than the skeletal branches. Branches located at an acute angle to the trunk are removed completely. If there are only two lateral branches or even one, cut them 4-5 buds from the base, shorten the guide 6 buds higher and postpone the laying of the lower tier for the next year.
Sweet cherry bears fruit on annual shoots and bouquet branches. In addition, cherry, with a strong annual growth of shoots, instantly growing after pruning, is not capable of branching, therefore, the crown is formed from skeletal branches in tiers. However, you are unlikely to succeed in laying even one tier in one year. The first compact tier is formed from branches located 10-20 cm apart along the trunk. On the next two tiers, the number of branches should be reduced by one, the branches should be weaker and arranged asymmetrically. The distance between the tiers is kept within 70-80 cm.
In the year when you lay the third tier, on the first tier, you need to form already 2-3 branches of the second order, spaced evenly relative to the conductor at a distance of at least 60-80 cm from each other. A year later, semi-skeletal branches are formed on the second tier, and a year later - on the third.
From the fifth to sixth year of life, the main task of pruning is to maintain the height of the sweet cherry at a level of 3-3.5 m and the length of skeletal branches within 4 m, that is, only thickening, improperly growing and damaged branches are removed. If the cherry fruits begin to shrink and appear only in the peripheral parts of the crown, in late February or early March, a rejuvenating pruning of the tree is carried out.
In the spring, in mid-March or early April, formative and sanitary pruning of cherries is carried out: the skeletal branches are shortened, the conductor is pruned to a height of 3-3.5 cm, the abundantly fruiting cherries are thinned out, removing thickening and competing branches. Frozen and broken shoots and branches are also subject to pruning. Do not forget that branches on cherries are formed in tiers, and the lowest tier should consist of 7-9 skeletal branches.
Pruning cherries in summer
If it becomes necessary to prune in the summer, this is done in two stages. The first is after the cherry has faded, but its fruits are still being formed. The second stage of pruning is carried out after harvesting. In order to stimulate the formation of new horizontal branches on cherries, young shoots are shortened. Young sweet cherries pincer, that is, pinch the tips of non-lignified shoots, forcing the tree to form branches in the direction you need.
Pruning in the fall
In autumn, the cherries are pruned after the foliage has fallen, trying to be in time before the end of September, since later the cuts on the branches heal worse. Removing weak, broken, and improperly growing branches will make it easier for the tree to winter. Annual shoots are shortened by a third, non-skeletal branches are cut to 30 cm. In trees under five years of age, the length of the branches should not exceed 50 cm.Autumn pruning is best done with a saw, because the cuts from it heal faster and more painlessly than the cuts from the pruner.
One-year-old seedlings are not pruned in the fall, because they are not yet strong enough and may suffer in winter. It is better to transfer pruning to spring or summer.
Sweet cherries are propagated by seeds and grafting. The disadvantage of seed propagation is that you never know what you will get as a result, therefore generative propagation is used only for growing rootstocks, which are subsequently grafted with a cultivated graft.
Growing from seeds
In regions with a mild climate, a wild cherry seedling can be used as a rootstock, but for cool regions it is not frost-hardy enough, and it does not differ in drought resistance. For the cultivation of the stock, the seeds of the winter-hardy and fruitful ordinary cherry are most often used, which grows normally in places with a high groundwater table. The only drawback of such a rootstock is the increased formation of root growth around it.
Cherry pits separated from the pulp are washed, dried in the shade, mixed with wet sand in a ratio of 1: 3 and stratified for six months at a temperature of 2-5 ºC, occasionally moistening and stirring the substrate. In early spring, the seeds are sown densely in the ground, keeping the distance between the lines about 10 cm.The sowing depth in sandy loam and loamy soils is 4-5 cm.When shoots appear, they are thinned out so that a distance of 3-4 cm remains between the seedlings.
Sowing care consists in loosening the soil, removing weeds and watering on time. Protect seedlings from rodents. In autumn, grown and matured seedlings are dug up and selected for further use those of them whose trunk thickness at the base is not thinner than 5-7 mm and a more or less developed fibrous root system about 15 cm long.Such seedlings are planted in the nursery according to the 90x30cm scheme. The next spring, varietal cuttings are grafted onto them.
Cherries are grafted onto the rootstock one or two weeks before the start of sap flow, because if you are late, the cut in the rootstock will oxidize, which does not contribute to the successful engraftment of the scion. As a rootstock, you can use both ordinary cherry seedlings and cherry root shoots. The grafting is done on a one-year or two-year-old seedling or cherry root shoot at a height of 15-20 cm from the ground. It is necessary to cook and carry out such an operation very carefully, since cherries are hard to take root on a cherry stock.
The easiest way to graft a varietal scion is by the method of improved copulation: both the rootstock and the scion are cut obliquely so that the oblique cuts are 3-4 cm long, and then an additional incision is made on both cuts no more than a centimeter deep, after which the stock and the scion are folded in slices " in a lock "to form a fixed joint, which is wrapped with eyepiece tape or tape. In order for the engraftment process to be as painful as possible, the grafting cuttings should be short - with only two buds, but the same diameter as the rootstock at the incision site.
Such cuttings are harvested after the first frost, when the air temperature drops to 8-10 ºC, then they are tied, sprayed with water, wrapped in polyethylene and stored under snow or in a refrigerator for six months. Before grafting cherries onto a cherry stock, cuttings are soaked in water from melted snow for several hours. For the operation, a sharp sterile instrument is used so that the cut is accurate and fusion occurs quickly.
Cherry diseases and their treatment
Diseases in cherries are mostly the same as in cherries, and most often they are affected by fungal diseases of coccomycosis, moniliosis and clasterosporia.
Clasterosporium disease, or perforated spot, affects branches, shoots, leaves, buds and cherry flowers. The leaves are covered with dark brown spots with an even darker border, in place of the spots, the tissue of the leaf plate begins to crumble, holes form in the leaves, and they fall off prematurely. On the affected shoots, tissues die off, gum flow begins, the fruits dry out.
Control measures: the affected parts are cut out, the wounds are cleaned and disinfected with a 1% solution of copper sulfate, rubbed with sorrel leaves three times with an interval of 10 minutes and then treated with garden varnish. Before bud break, the area is treated with a 1% solution of copper sulfate or Nitrafen. The second treatment is carried out with one percent Bordeaux liquid immediately after flowering, the third after two to three weeks, and the last one no later than three weeks before harvesting.
Moniliosis, or gray rot, or monilial burn affects not only cherries and cherries. Any stone fruit crops can suffer from it - plum, cherry plum, peach and apricot. In diseased plants, flowers dry up, fruits rot, branches dry up one after another. With high air humidity, gray pads are formed on the ovaries and fruits, containing spores of the fungus, which makes the berries wrinkle and dry out.
Control measures: immediately after flowering, cherries are treated with a 1% Bordeaux liquid, re-processing is carried out two weeks after harvest. Simultaneously with the treatments, the affected fruits and ovaries are removed, diseased shoots are cut out, the fallen leaves are collected and burned. If gum flow has begun, you need to clean the wound to healthy tissue with a sharp knife and process it, as in the case of a hole spot disease - copper sulfate, sorrel and garden varnish.
Coccomycosis most often manifests itself on cherry leaves, less often on shoots, petioles or fruits. It develops most rapidly in rainy weather: in June, small red-brown spots form on the foliage, which gradually increase in size, then merge with each other, affecting almost the entire plate, causing the leaves to fall prematurely. As a rule, with a strong defeat, secondary growth of shoots begins. This delays the ripening of fruits, jeopardizes the harvest, weakens the plant and reduces its winter hardiness.
Control measures: before budding, cherries are sprayed with copper-containing preparations (copper oxychloride, Bordeaux liquid, copper sulfate), during the budding period, trees are treated with a solution of 2-3 g of Horus in 10 liters of water, repeated processing with Horus is carried out immediately after flowering. After two to three weeks, the affected branches are cut out, while capturing healthy tissue, and burned.
In addition to these most common diseases, cherries in the garden are affected by diseases such as brown spot, witch's broom, plum dwarfism, false or sulfur-yellow polypores, mosaic ringing, dying off of branches, scab, fruit rot, Stecklenberg viros and others, sometimes completely diseases atypical for sweet cherry. We have described how cherries are treated for fungal diseases, but, unfortunately, there are no cures for viral diseases, so the best remedy for all diseases is high agricultural technology and conscientious timely care, for which the fruiting cherries will thank you with a bountiful harvest of juicy high-quality berries.
Cherry pests and control
Diseases and pests of cherries are practically the same as those of cherries and other stone fruit crops. There are many of them, and we will describe to you those harmful insects that are found in gardens more often than others.
Black cherry and apple plantain aphid the worst enemies of cherries and cherries. Their larvae feed on leaf juices, which stops the growth of the central vein, leaves curl, dry and turn black. In young plants, on which aphids have settled, the growth is deformed and decreases, while in fruiting plants flower buds do not form, and the quality of the fruits invariably deteriorates. Cherry leaves are covered with honeydew - sticky and sweet aphid excrement, which is a substrate for sooty fungus.
Way of struggle: in early spring, on sleeping buds, cherries are treated with Confidor, after two weeks the treatment is repeated. Herbal preparations with insecticidal properties can be used against aphids, for example, a solution of 200 g of tobacco dust in 10 liters of water, to which a little liquid soap is added.
Cherry fly - the main fruit-damaging pest of cherries and cherries, capable of destroying up to 90% of berries. Fly larvae feed on flower nectar and fruit juice, damaging them. The fly is most dangerous for mid-season and late varieties of sweet cherries. The fruits damaged by the fly darken, rot and fall off, and the larvae get out of the berries and burrow into the ground.
Ways to fight. Flies are lured with traps made of plastic or plywood, painted in a bright yellow color, then covered with petroleum jelly or entomological glue and hung on a tree at a height of 1.5-2 m.If 5-7 flies stuck to the traps in three days, then it's time to process cherries with Aktellik or Confidor. After two weeks, if you sprayed the cherries with Aktellik, and three weeks later, if with Confidor, repeat the treatment of the cherries with the same insecticide. The final treatment can be carried out three weeks before the harvest of mid-season and late varieties.
Leaf rollers not as harmful as aphids and cherry flies, but the caterpillars of these moths, feeding on leaves, twist them and fasten them with cobwebs along the median vein - this is how the caterpillars of the rose and hawthorn leafworm do. And the caterpillars of the variegated-golden leafworm fold the leaf across the central vein. But both of them eat up the buds, flower petals and devour the leaves, leaving only a skeleton of veins from them, and older caterpillars damage the ovaries and fruits, gnawing out the flesh. The caterpillar of the subcrustal leafworm damages the cherry trunk in its lower part, penetrating into the wood and making moves in it.
Ways to fight: after harvesting the fruits, the damaged parts of the trunk are cleaned and the wounds and the whole tree are treated with a concentrated solution of chlorophos. In the spring, before the kidneys open, another such treatment is carried out.
Cherry pipe runner is a pest not only of cherries and sweet cherries, but also other stone fruit crops. The larvae of the tube-worm feed on the kernels of the seeds, while damaging the pulp of the fruit.
Ways to fight: two treatments are carried out against the cherry pipe-runner. The first one - immediately after flowering, using a solution of 1.5 g of Actara in 10 liters of water, the second - two weeks later with Aktellik, Karbofos, Corsair, Ambush or Metafox.
Moth-stripped and winter moths frequent residents of cherry and cherry orchards. Their caterpillars, eating the buds, leaves and flowers of the cherry, hide in the foliage, fastened with cobwebs. A massive invasion of these insects can leave only veins from cherry leaves. It is easy to distinguish these caterpillars from others: since they do not have eight pairs of legs, like other caterpillars, but only five, they move by bending their back in a loop.
Ways to fight: before flowering, trees are sprayed with Karbofos, Zolon, Metaphos, Phosphamide, Cyanox and other drugs of a similar effect.In early spring, before bud break, the site is treated with Nitrafen or Oleocubrite.
In addition to the described insects, among the pests of sweet cherry are not so common brown fruit and red apple mites, cherry shoot, miner and fruit striped moths, cherry, yellow plum and slimy sawflies, sapwood, unpaired bark beetle, ringed, downy and unpaired silkworms, apple glass case and others. Fortunately, they only attack trees weakened by improper keeping conditions and poor maintenance. In the fight against them, they use the same means of extermination as for cleaning the garden from the insects we have described.
Harmful to the crop is not only insects, but also birds, pecking ripe fruits. You can scare birds away by hanging ribbons of rustling foil on a tree or old, worn out computer disks that play with glare in the sun. If this does not give the desired result, you will have to throw a 50x50 mm mesh over the cherries.
Varieties for the Moscow region
Cherry growing requires a lot of sun and heat, and not so long ago it could be argued that the cool climate of the Moscow region is too harsh for this culture. However, thanks to the work of breeders, cherry varieties have appeared, which are distinguished by winter hardiness, which grow well within the Moscow region and even to the north. For example:
- Bryansk pink - a fruitful self-fruitless cherry of late ripening, which begins to bear fruit at 4-5 years of age. Juicy fruits with a diameter of 20-22 mm and weighing up to 6 g, pink with yellowish pulp and brown pits, have a sweet taste;
- Iput - high, up to 4 m, self-fertile fruitful sweet cherry of an early ripening variety with a burgundy color, fruits weighing up to 5.5 g, up to 22 mm in diameter, with an easily separable brown stone and juicy, sweet pulp;
- Fatezh - mid-early self-fruitless variety of average yield with yellowish-red round berries weighing up to 5 g with juicy pulp of sweet and sour taste;
- Tyutchevka - self-fertile high-yielding cherry of late ripening with dark red wide-round fruits weighing up to 7.5 g with a diameter of 20-23 mm and red, dense and juicy pulp of excellent taste;
- Jealous - The dark red fruits of this self-fertile late-ripening cherry weigh on average up to 5 g, they are up to 20 mm in diameter, their flesh is very dense, juicy, dark red and sweet in taste.
The varieties Malysh, Poetziya, Orlovskaya pink, Sinyavskaya, Cheremashnaya, and Krymskaya are also gaining popularity.
Early varieties of sweet cherries
By the timing of ripening, sweet cherry is divided into early, mid-ripening and late. Early ripe cherry varieties include the following varieties:
- Valery Chkalov - large self-fruitless sweet cherry, pollinators of which can be cherry varieties Aprilka, June early, Zhabule, Skorospelka. Trees of this variety enter fruiting in the fifth year. Their fruits are wide-heart-shaped, with a blunt apex, weighing 6-8 g, black-red, their flesh is dark, with pink veins;
- Dunn - partially self-fertile fruitful sweet cherry, which begins to bear fruit for 5-6 years. Rounded one-dimensional dark red fruits of slightly conical shape with an average weight of up to 4.5 g contain a tender and juicy dark red pulp with a sweet taste;
- Lesya - winter-hardy cherry, undemanding to warmth, unfortunately, is affected by coccomycosis. Begins fruiting in 4-5 years. Heart-shaped dark red fruits weighing 7-8 g with dense juicy pulp have a sweet and sour taste;
- Ruby Nikitina - a fruitful, pest- and disease-resistant, partially self-fertile variety that begins to bear fruit in 5-6 years, with dark red fruits weighing up to 3.8 g with a juicy, tender pulp of a sweet taste;
- Early pink - winter-hardy, fruitful, fungus-resistant sweet cherry with rounded-oval pink fruits with a red blush, entering fruiting for 4-5 years. The berry mass is 6-7, the taste is excellent. Needs pollinators of varieties Ugolyok, Annushka, Ethics, Donchanka, Valeria.
In addition to those described, the early varieties Recognition, Debut, Lasunya, Melitopol early, Skazka, Melitopol red, Elektra, Rubin early, Chance, Era, Priusadebnaya yellow, Ariadna, Cheremashnaya, Krasnaya gorka, Ovstuzhenka and others are popular.
Medium ripening varieties
Mid-season cherries represent the following varieties:
- Velvet - begins to bear fruit after 5 years. Dessert variety resistant to fungi with large, shiny dark red fruits of excellent taste;
- Nectar - a fruitful variety that begins to bear fruit in 4-5 years, the fruit is shiny, dark red, the pulp is juicy, crunchy, very sweet taste;
- Ember - sweet cherry of medium yield beginning to bear fruit at 4-5 years old with dark red fruits with dense, juicy pulp of a weak wine-sweet taste;
- French black - winter-hardy sweet cherry of medium productivity, entering fruiting at the age of 7, with almost black fruits with dense, juicy flesh of dessert taste;
- Backyard - fruitful sweet cherries beginning to bear fruit at 6-7 years old with large heart-shaped, shiny light yellow fruits with a red blush. The pulp is juicy, tender, wine-sweet.
Gardeners are interested in medium-ripening varieties Rubinovaya, Franz Joseph, Kubanskaya, Black Daibera, Gedelfingenskaya, Totem, Epos, Adeline, Summer resident, Dilemma, Prostor, Raisin, Dniprovka, Vinka, Mirage, Rival, Tavrichanka, Talisman, In memory of Chernyshevsky other.
Late varieties of cherries
Of the late-ripening varieties, the most popular are:
- Bryanochka - a high-yielding, winter-hardy, self-fertile variety, resistant to coccomycosis, which begins to bear fruit at the 5th year of life. Fruits are dark red, wide-heart-shaped, weighing up to 7 g with dark red dense pulp of sweet taste. For pollination, Bryanochka needs Veda, Iput or Tyutchevka varieties;
- Michurinskaya late - a high-yielding, winter-hardy, self-fertile variety that begins to bear fruit for 5-6 years. For pollination, you need Michurinka or Pink Pearl trees. Fruits of Michurinskaya late are broad-hearted, dark red in color, weighing up to 6.5 g. The flesh is red, juicy and sweet;
- Farewell - a drought-resistant, high-yielding self-infertile variety that begins to bear fruit from 4-5 years of age. Fruits are red, round, very large - weighing up to 14 g, with light yellow, dense cartilaginous pulp. As pollinators, you can plant sweet cherries of the varieties Annushka, Aelita, Donetsk coal, Sestrenka, Ethics, Valeria, Valery Chkalov, Yaroslavna, Donetsk beauty;
- Lena - cherries of this variety begin to bear fruit 4 years after planting. The variety is high-yielding, winter-hardy, resistant to fungal diseases, self-fertile. Blunt-hearted black-red berries weighing up to 8 g contain dense flesh. The varieties Ovstuzhenka, Revna, Tyutchevka, Iput are used as pollinators;
- Amazon - frost-hardy, fruitful, drought-resistant self-sterile variety with dense meats, dark red berries, easily separating from the stalk, weighing up to 9 g with gristly, red-pink dense pulp. The varieties Donchanka, Yaroslavna, Annushka, Donetskaya krasavitsa, Early rozovinka are suitable as pollinators.
In addition to those described, late-ripening varieties Anons, Iskra, Druzhba, Zodiac, Divnaya, Vekha, Large-fruited, Orion, Melitopol black, Meotida, Prestige, Surprise, Romance, Temporion, Cosmic, Anshlag and others are popular.
- Read the topic on Wikipedia
- Features and other plants of the family Pink
- List of all species on The Plant List
- More information on World Flora Online
- Information about Fruit Crops
Sections: Fruit and berry plants Pink (Rosaceae) Fruit trees Honey plants Plants on H
Blackberry Natchez: description of the variety and its characteristics
This blackberry variety is semi-sheltering., since its stems at first grow almost vertically (like that of Nessian blackberry or kumanik), but later they droop and practically spread along the surface of the ground. An adult shrub is strong and spreading, its whips can reach a length of 6-6.5 m.In the first season after planting, the stems of Natchez blackberries creeping on the ground grow up to 3.5-4.0 m.
The main difference between the Natchez variety is the complete absence of thorns on the shoots, which makes it easier to care for bushes and harvest.
A quick tour of Natchez Blackberries - video
In adult plants of this variety, shoots grow very quickly, lateral shoots with a large number of fruiting branches are formed. The foliage of this shrub is oval-ovate with sharp tips, small teeth along the edges. The surface of the leaf plates is terry, light emerald.
The roots of this blackberry variety are perfectly developed, they are the more powerful, the more vegetative mass remains on the bushes after the pruning procedure during the formation of lashes.
Only last year's shoots bear fruit in the Natchez blackberry variety.
The berries are cylindrical, slightly elongated, saturated black color with a characteristic shine. The length of the fruits is about 4 cm, weighing up to 8.5-9 g. If this blackberry is provided with good care, and the distance between neighboring bushes is large enough, then some fruits grow up to 12.5 g.
Photo sizes of Natchez blackberries
Blackberry flowers are small, white, collected in racemose inflorescences, each of which can contain up to 12-30 ovaries. Ripe fruits are of moderate density, moderately juicy, small drupes. The berries are firmly attached to the stalks, the separation is dry.
The quality of ripe berries is greatly influenced by the quality of care, the composition of the soil, as well as the climatic conditions of the growing region.
According to the reviews of blackberry lovers, the berries of this variety have a slight aftertaste of coffee.
This variety is picky about soil moisture, therefore, the irrigation regime must be observed. But the bushes tolerate the heat perfectly, but berries at temperatures above 38 degrees Celsius need to be hidden from the sun's rays.
The resistance to frost in the Natchez blackberry variety is not too high, the bushes can withstand cold up to -12-13 degrees Celsius. Moreover, the shoots themselves practically do not freeze over the winter, but flower buds most often die. In the spring, the vegetative mass is quickly restored, but this berry bush will no longer have flowers and fruits this season. Therefore, even in the south of Russia, the Natchez brambles will have to be sheltered for the winter.
Harvested crop perfectly transfers transportation over any distance, has a good keeping quality.
Natchez is a dessert variety, so the taste of the berries is sweet.... The fruits are eaten fresh, added to desserts. But jam or compote from some berries of this blackberry turns out to be too cloying. Therefore, the best harvested crop of this blackberry is suitable for making jam or compotes - assorted.
Planting and post-plant care
Wisteria is a plant with special requirements for planting site and growing conditions.
It is worth considering where to plant it, because it will stay there for years to come.
This unique plant needs space:
- optimally protected from the wind - this is especially important in winter, when the wind often breaks delicate shoots and woody twigs.
For cultivation, you should choose a place, preferably at the southern or western wall of the building. The east side is worse, here the morning sun will increase the sensitivity of the kidneys to frost. It is the freezing of flower buds that is the most common reason why wisteria does not bloom.
The plant is very sprawling. He needs a lot of space and strong supports, so it is better not to let him on the balustrade - there is a high probability that the vine will quickly bend it and destroy it. Make sure the plant does not grow in gutters - they can bend under the weight of the vine.
Root processes are difficult to remove. They are very durable and can appear at a great distance from the trunk. In addition, the vine gives a lot of garbage, you will have to clean it up every day.
Japanese wisteria is best planted in fertile soil. The soil should be:
- well drained
- retaining moisture
- with a neutral reaction (pH 6-7), chlorosis of the leaves develops on too alkaline soils.
If the soil with a reaction is above neutral, it is worth adding more acidic peat mixed with compost.
The soil for wisteria can be almost any, except for wetlands and very heavy, crusty clay soils. But it is good to enrich the site with a sufficient amount of humus for the first years of the vine's life. Therefore, it is recommended to mix the soil with compost or peat. An increased amount of humus, in addition to nutrient resources in ideal proportions, will maintain the necessary moisture in the soil. Soil moisture in the first 2-3 years is an important growth factor. Only when a plant has a developed root system will it be resistant to summer drought.
A young plant does not tolerate dryness, is sensitive to long periods without precipitation, but tolerates waterlogged areas even worse. It can adapt to soil conditions, but it will look worse than a plant planted in the right place. The plant does not adapt to heavy, waterlogged soil.
The main problem when buying seedlings is to buy specimens grown by graft or cuttings. If we are concerned about flowering quickly, in no case should we choose wisteria grown from seed, such specimens often bloom after only a few years of cultivation.
After planting wisteria, the following problems may arise:
- The species' susceptibility to root damage and difficult healing has led buyers to choose container-grown plants that adapt faster to replanting.
- The second feature is the tendency of the vine to stunted growth for several months after planting. These growths will not be impressive; in the first 2-3 years, the plants do not grow very quickly.
- The third disappointment can be the quality of the flowering. Do not judge by the first flowers, then the flowering improves.
Wisteria is planted in open ground in spring.
Better to plant wisteria on a special mesh - wood or metal. The mesh will be invisible because the plant is very dense and you can be sure not to damage the wall or equipment.
If your neighbors have good blooming wisteria, you can ask to cut semi-lignified shoots (cuttings 10-12 cm long) in June-July in order to grow seedlings from them. It is better to cut them off from the base of last year's shoots. In hobby gardening, this is the safest and least troublesome breeding method. Typically, cuttings will be ready in 6 months.
Anyone who has a lot of patience to wait for flowers for years can propagate wisteria by seed. Before planting, wisteria seeds are soaked in warm water for 24 hours, sown in early spring.
Follow-up care of the culture
In the future, the standard procedure for caring for Fatezh cherries is carried out, which includes:
- Watering 1-2 times a month with 20 liters of water under the bush.
- Weeding and loosening the trunk circle.
- Pruning: spring (formative) and autumn (sanitary).
- Top dressing in spring (mineral complex) and autumn (organic).
- Shelter for the winter.
Diseases and pests, methods of control and prevention
|Diseases and pests||Signs of defeat||Prophylaxis||Treatment|
|Aphid||Twisting of young foliage and a large number of small bugs||Compliance with the dosage of nitrogen application||Spraying with garlic solution, ash, soapy water. If traditional methods do not help, you can treat it with chemicals such as Fitoverm, Karbofos, Aktarin. Chemical treatments are acceptable before flowering or after harvest|
|Cherry fly||Worms in berries||Autumn cleaning of the near-trunk area from leaves and weeds, digging up the soil|
|Moth||Leaves eaten by caterpillars|
|Coccomycosis||The leaves are covered with dots, quickly turn yellow and crumble||Do not plant trees next to cherries and cherries that are not resistant to fungal infections. You can not immediately plant cherries in the place of a shrub that has just been removed due to illness.||Destruction of diseased plant parts. Spraying chemicals (eg Horus)|
|Moniliosis||The berries rot on the tree, the leaves dry out|
The large-fruited cherry Skazka, being a successful result of targeted selection, has received improved characteristics of its predecessors.
Drought resistance, winter hardiness
The tree easily tolerates a drop in temperature to -25˚C, which makes the Skazka sweet cherry popular in areas with unstable climatic conditions in the center of Russia.
For flowering cherries, strong night frosts can pose a danger, which negatively affects the buds.
With good indicators of drought resistance, the culture requires timely watering, which has a beneficial effect on the activation of fruiting.
Pollination, flowering period and ripening times
Since the Skazka cherry is a representative of self-fertile varieties, it should be provided when cultivating it to accommodate varieties that can provide the pollination necessary for the formation of large berries.
Pollinators suitable for the growing season for cherries Skazka are Tyutchevka, Ovstuzhenka, Iput.
Flowering trees in a warm climate decorate the garden in mid-April. Gardeners are attracted by such a characteristic of the Tale cherry variety as early fruiting. Fragrant ripe berries begin to be removed from the branches in May.
The planted seedlings of the Skazka variety begin to bear fruit at the age of five. 5 kg of fruit can be removed from young trees.
As the fruit crop develops, the yield increases. From an adult plant of the Skazka sweet cherry, an average of 30 kg of excellent large berries are obtained.
Scope of berries
The collection of fully ripe cherries from the Fairy Tale is carried out with care to avoid deformation of the juicy drupes.
They are consumed fresh, appreciating the spicy honey sweetness. Most often they are harvested in the form of compotes, preserves, jelly, marmalade.
Disease and pest resistance
Sweet cherry Skazka, even under unfavorable conditions with high atmospheric humidity, demonstrates good resistance to infections characteristic of this fruit culture.
This variety is rarely affected by pests, which allows you to get a stable annual yield.
Advantages and disadvantages
Gardeners who have experience in growing the early cherry Skazka appreciate its many advantages:
- winter hardiness
- great taste of dense honey berries, distinguished by their large size and spectacular dark skin with a pomegranate sheen
- fairly abundant and stable yield
- good transportability
- resistance of berries to cracking
- rare damage by harmful insects and diseases.
An insignificant disadvantage of this fruit crop is the need to plant a number of varieties - pollinators.
Follow-up care of the culture
Care for Drogan Yellow cherries is standard. During active vegetation, flowering and fruiting, regular watering is recommended with a frequency of 15-30 days, depending on the amount of natural precipitation.
The feeding of young plants is carried out with the help of mineral fertilizers in May and July. Older plants need additional feeding at the end of the season. This can be humus or compost in the amount of 10-12 kg, applied under the tree in October.
Preparing a plant for winter includes thorough digging and mulching of the soil and wrapping the lower part of the trunk with heat-insulating material, which is especially important for young trees. As soon as the first snow falls, it is advisable to sprinkle the trunk with a snow cone up to 1 m high.
Pruning helps to form the crown and increase the yield of the plant. In addition, sanitary pruning of the tree helps to rid the tree of diseased branches. Pruning is performed twice per season: in spring and autumn. This always removes dry and damaged shoots.
According to reviews about the Drogan Yellow cherry, to increase the yield, it is recommended to cut the young shoots of the current year by about half the length.
Diseases and pests, methods of control and prevention
Consider the diseases of the Drogan Yellow cherry variety:
Cutting off the bodies of the fungus, followed by treatment with a disinfectant (3% solution of copper sulfate)
Dissolved lime treatment of the trunk
Removal of damaged fruits and leaves. Fungicide treatment (Fitosporin or 1% Bordeaux liquid solution)
Spraying with 1% solution of copper sulfate or "Nitrafemon"
How to get rid of pests:
Use of insecticides ("Zolon", "Calypso", "Actellik")
Regular loosening of the soil near the trunk. Application of glue traps
Use of insecticides (Metaphos, Hexachloran)
Collection and destruction of prematurely fallen leaves and fruits
Scarecrows, rattles, loud synthesizers
Covering a tree with a fishing net or a fine mesh net. Spraying the tree with a solution of red pepper (insist 10 pods in 3 liters of water). The use of deterrent gels, such as "Bed Free"